Top 10 Gold Producing Countries of 2011

By Michelle Smith - Exclusive to Gold Investing News

 

Gold’s admirers are diverse, and so are the locations where it is mined. In 2011, over 1,800 tons of gold were produced in ten countries. These top producing nations, which span four continents, including both emerging and developed nations, are listed below.

China

Mine production: 355 tones

In addition to being a top gold consumer, China is also the leader of the world’s gold-producing nations, a title it took from South Africa in 2007. In 2011, China was the only country whose production exceeded 300 tones. Its mine output last year was ten tones more than in 2010, representing an almost 3 percent increase in production. China also ranks third in explored gold reserves.

Australia

Mine production: 270 tones

Australia’s production increased last year from the 261 tones reported for 2010. Most of the country’s yellow metal is extracted in the state of Western Australia, where the world-class Super Pit at Kalgoorlie is located. Once called the Golden Mile, and consisting of numerous mining operations, this landmark site was converted into Australia’s largest open-pit mine and is now owned by Newmont (NYSE:NEM,TSX:NMC) and Barrick Gold (NYSE:ABX,TSX:ABX).

United States

Mine production: 237 tones

Production of gold in the US rose from 231 tons in 2010. The vast majority of US gold are mined in the state of Nevada, home of the Carlin trend. Newmont has renowned operations in the region, including 14 open-pit mines and four underground mines that operate as an integrated unit employing various processing methods.

Russia

Mine production: 200 tones

Russia’s gold production increased 8 tons last year from the 192 tons mined in 2010. Though Russia is fourth among producers, the nation ranks second in explored reserves. The nation’s most prolific gold regions are Siberia and the Far East. Polyus Gold International (LSE: POLG), which claimed the title of top gold producer in Russia for 2011, operates mines in both areas.

South Africa

Mine production: 190 tones

Centered on the list is Africa’s largest gold-producing nation. Though South Africa is no longer the king of the producing nations, it continues to possess the most gold resources as well as the world’s largest deposits in Witswatersrand. From 2010 to 2011 gold production was virtually flat, with only a 1 ton increase reported, a 0.5 percent change.

Peru

Mine production: 150 tones

Peru is one of only two of the top ten gold-producing nations to experience declines in mined output in 2011. Production fell from 164 tons in 2010. Still, Peru is home to Minera Yanacocha, which is the largest gold producer in Latin America and has three active open pits.

Canada

Mine production: 110 tones

Like its southern neighbor, Canada saw its gold production increase last year, mining 110 tons compared to 91 tons in 2010. The majority of the nation’s gold comes from Ontario, which is the home of Goldcorp‘s (NYSE:GG,TSX:G) Red Lake gold mine. About half of the country’s annual gold production comes from Red Lake.

Ghana

Mine production: 100 tones

Ghana’s gold production rose from the 82 tones reported for 2010. Once known as the Gold Coast, this West African nation is the second-largest gold producer on the continent. The countries largest mine, Tarkwa, is operated by Gold Fields (NYSE:GFI).

Indonesia

Mine production: 100 tones

Indonesia is an archipelago of 17,508 islands in Southeast Asia. Despite the nation’s diverse geography, its gold resources are concentrated in a handful of mineral districts. One of the most notable is Grasberg, which hosts the world’s largest gold mine, also named Grasberg. Though it ranks equally with Ghana for production in 2011, that level of output is a decrease for Indonesia, which produced 120 tons in 2010.

Uzbekistan

Mine production: 90 tones

The world’s tenth-largest gold producer is Uzbekistan, a landlocked nation carved out of the former Soviet Union. The gold mining industry is dominated by state-owned Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat, which is responsible for 80 percent of Uzbekistan’s gold production. Navoi Mining’s key asset is Muruntau, the world’s largest open-pit mine; its reserves are expected to last until about 2032.

absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS SULPHIDE RICH MINERALIZATIONS, NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

Mohmed Ali, NW, El Sammani, Y., Abdel Rahman, EM.,

El Gizouli, MO, Sulieman, M., El Hafiz, M.

The geological Research Authority of the Sudan, P.O.Box 410Khartoum, Sudan.

This study is essentially based on comparison between geochemical data of various mineralizations located at Kordofan province. Each of these ore deposits characterized by elements that radically different than the other, that include lithology, degree of metamorphism, categorized genetic model known, geochronology, and definitive geological environment. Precisely, three VHMS Gammama, Mazroub and Fuga ore bodies, SEDEX sulphides at Abu Zaema, Quartz veins and quartzites at El Firga and Tinna close to Mazroub.

These ore bodies imply huge surface area from Mazroub to the east to Um Badir to the west. Despite these diversified and intricate geological environments that embrace all these ore bodies, and based on chemical grounds a common signature was found. The only conceivable model to this common signature is attributed to magma chamber conditions and the associated hydrothermal solutions. The slight differences in chemical signal may be attributed to magma hiatus and impetus as all these mineralizations are products of rejuvenation and multiple episodes hydrothermal activities was the main mechanism of formation. These properties that make all these ore bodies carry sulpides that usually associated with precious metals rendered them as highly exceptional geological phenomena and above all particularly highly enriched terrane of highly economic value. Mineral exploration in such terranes is imperative and most of the time fruitful.     

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دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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 Gold Mineralization Discovery in Umm Sagata- Qala En Nahal areas, Gadarif State - Eastern Sudan

Osman Abuagla Daffalla Hamed, Mohammed Azmi, El-Sheik Mohammed Abdel- Rahman, Salih Ali Salih

A low density stream sediments survey has been conducted in Umm Saqata-Qala En Nahal area, Gadarif State – Eastern Sudan. The aim of the study is to explore for gold and associated elements using a cost and time effective exploration method, in a low grade non explored Pan- African volcanosedimentary-greenstone belt. An orientational study has been conducted to determine the optimum fraction (grain size) for sampling in a rich Savana zone. About 12 samples have been collected from a mineralized locality and sieved for –125 µm and – 63 µm. Both of the fractions have been analyzed for gold using wet chemical technique with detection limit 2 ppb. Trace elements havebeen determined using Aque- regia - ICP technique.

Concentrations of gold mineralizatin and associated elements are typically found in the finest grain size fraction (silt and clay, -63 µm).

As it is the first time to conduct such survey in the study area a number of gold anomalies have been recorded. After selecting the right fraction the Umm Saqata- Qala En Nahal area has been fully geochemical surveyed at a density of 1 sample per 7 to 10 Km2.

absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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The Egyptian black sand deposits, beach economic mineral concentrates   and upgrading of low grade ilmenite concentrate

Prof. Mohamed Ismail Moustafa

Nuclear Materials Authority

The Egyptian black sand deposits are distributed along the northern coastal plain between Abu Qir to the west and Rafah to the east. These deposits are manily encountered in the beach sediments and the coastal sand dunes. The Egyptian black sand deposits contain strategic and economic heavy minerals which are needed for either nuclear industry or other metallurgical and engineering industries.

The essential economic minerals in these deposits are ilmenite, FeTiO3; magnetite,Fe3O4; garnet,(Fe,Mg,Mn,Ca)3Al2(SiO4)3; zircon, ZrSiO4; rutile, TiO2 and monazite (REEs- Ce,La,Nd,…..,Th)PO4. In addition ,some accessory minerals are also found: gold, Au; cassiterite, SnO2; xenotime, YPO4; thorite, ThSiO4; thorianite, ThO2; pitchblende, UO3; cinnabar HgS; chevkinite, REE4 Fe+² (Ti,Fe+³)2 Ti2Si4O22; copper; zinc; lead and platinum.

The average content of total economic minerals differs from place to other along the northern coast of Egypt. This content rarely exceeds 5% in the most upper meter of the beach deposits. Taking into consideration the first 20 meters of depth , it was concluded that the top meter includes 40-50% of the average total economic minerals content, the top 5 meters include 70-80% and the top 10 meters include 85-95% of the average total economic minerals content. Ilmenite is the most common economic mineral, it alone represents about 50% of the total economic minerals content, while monazite has the lowest content, it represents 0.01% in average. The coastal sand dunes may contain average total economic minerals content higher than that of the beach sediments.

In the surfacial naturally high concentrated black sand deposits, the average total economic minerals content may attains more than 90%. Such surfacial sediments are represented by zones of erosion due to action of marine currents and waves.

Using both of wet gravity concentration, low-high intensity magnetic separation and high-tension electrostatic separation techniques, each of the individual economic minerals can be obtained in a corresponding high- purity mineral concentrate with accepted grade and recovery. The physical and chemical specifications for most of the obtained Egyptian economic mineral concentrates are suitable for local and foreign markets.

During the last 10 years definite amounts of the individual economic mineral concentrates were produced from the Egyptian black sand deposits using a project constructed by Nuclear Materials Authority. The following amounts of economic mineral concentrates were produced: leucoxene, 18 ton; rutile, 100 ton; zircon, 1000 ton; magnetite, 2600 ton and ilmenite, 4000 ton. Two thirds the produced amount of ilmenite were imported to China and others.

Ilmenite is the main economic mineral in the Egyptian black sand deposits. It is characteristic by low content of TiO2 and high content of Cr2O3. The contents of these two oxides may affect negatively on the marketing of ilmenite concentrates. Several processes for ilmenite treatments were suggested to improve its marketable specifications. As for example smelting process to produce high titania rich slag and pig iron and acid chemical treatments to produce synthetic rutile or TiO2 pigment.  

absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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نشرت فى 8 مارس 2012 بواسطة absalman

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The Egyptian black sand deposits, beach economic mineral concentrates   and upgrading of low grade ilmenite concentrate

Prof. Mohamed Ismail Moustafa

Nuclear Materials Authority

The Egyptian black sand deposits are distributed along the northern coastal plain between Abu Qir to the west and Rafah to the east. These deposits are manily encountered in the beach sediments and the coastal sand dunes. The Egyptian black sand deposits contain strategic and economic heavy minerals which are needed for either nuclear industry or other metallurgical and engineering industries.

The essential economic minerals in these deposits are ilmenite, FeTiO3; magnetite,Fe3O4; garnet,(Fe,Mg,Mn,Ca)3Al2(SiO4)3; zircon, ZrSiO4; rutile, TiO2 and monazite (REEs- Ce,La,Nd,…..,Th)PO4. In addition ,some accessory minerals are also found: gold, Au; cassiterite, SnO2; xenotime, YPO4; thorite, ThSiO4; thorianite, ThO2; pitchblende, UO3; cinnabar HgS; chevkinite, REE4 Fe+² (Ti,Fe+³)2 Ti2Si4O22; copper; zinc; lead and platinum.

The average content of total economic minerals differs from place to other along the northern coast of Egypt. This content rarely exceeds 5% in the most upper meter of the beach deposits. Taking into consideration the first 20 meters of depth , it was concluded that the top meter includes 40-50% of the average total economic minerals content, the top 5 meters include 70-80% and the top 10 meters include 85-95% of the average total economic minerals content. Ilmenite is the most common economic mineral, it alone represents about 50% of the total economic minerals content, while monazite has the lowest content, it represents 0.01% in average. The coastal sand dunes may contain average total economic minerals content higher than that of the beach sediments.

In the surfacial naturally high concentrated black sand deposits, the average total economic minerals content may attains more than 90%. Such surfacial sediments are represented by zones of erosion due to action of marine currents and waves.

Using both of wet gravity concentration, low-high intensity magnetic separation and high-tension electrostatic separation techniques, each of the individual economic minerals can be obtained in a corresponding high- purity mineral concentrate with accepted grade and recovery. The physical and chemical specifications for most of the obtained Egyptian economic mineral concentrates are suitable for local and foreign markets.

During the last 10 years definite amounts of the individual economic mineral concentrates were produced from the Egyptian black sand deposits using a project constructed by Nuclear Materials Authority. The following amounts of economic mineral concentrates were produced: leucoxene, 18 ton; rutile, 100 ton; zircon, 1000 ton; magnetite, 2600 ton and ilmenite, 4000 ton. Two thirds the produced amount of ilmenite were imported to China and others.

Ilmenite is the main economic mineral in the Egyptian black sand deposits. It is characteristic by low content of TiO2 and high content of Cr2O3. The contents of these two oxides may affect negatively on the marketing of ilmenite concentrates. Several processes for ilmenite treatments were suggested to improve its marketable specifications. As for example smelting process to produce high titania rich slag and pig iron and acid chemical treatments to produce synthetic rutile or TiO2 pigment.  

absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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نشرت فى 8 مارس 2012 بواسطة absalman

دكتور: عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان

absalman
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