The role of Earth Sciences in development of the Egyptian society with emphases on the upper egypt and read sea governerates
The role of Earth Sciences
in development of the Egyptian society
with emphases on the upper egypt and read sea governerates
Abdel Aty B. Salman
Ex-Chairman, Nuclear Materials Authority
It is known that Egypt is about 1 million k2in areas, 97% of this country area is desert and mountainous lands and about 3% are suitable for cultivation. Moreover, the water resources are limited and Egypt population is about 76 million (according to Egypt Population Report of (2006). Most of them are concentrated in the Nile Valley, Nile Delta, Cairo, Alexandria and some cities along Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. These facts indicate that Egypt is facing three big problems: Prevailing of desert and mountains lands, high population density concentrated in limited areas and deficiency of water. Therefore, here the rules of geologists and earth sciences are very important in planning for the development of the Egyptian society with emphasis on the Upper Egypt and Red Sea Governorates.
The idea of this paper depends on two main factors in the developments of the Egyptian society: 1. Utilization of the natural resources; mainly economic mineral deposits and valuable rocks, which are of wide distribution in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. 2. The available infrastructures in this desert. Based on the integration of these two factors, some development industrial centers can be planned and established with minimum infrastructures expenses.
In this contest, four main roads can be recommended as development axes that cross the Eastern Desert of Egypt from west to east, i.e. from Nile Valley to Red Sea. The first one is El Korimat/Benisweif-El Zafarana, the second one is Qena-Safaga, the third is Qeft-Qusser and the fourth is Idfu-Mersa Alam Roads. The types of economic minerals and the valuable rocks in the environs of these roads are surveyed and inspected during this work.
Accordingly, several development centers, which are suitable for the existing natural resources, are recommended to be constructed on these axes. The project area covers about 125 000km2 of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Which forms about 12, 50% of the total country area. The benefits of this giant project are clear as follows: 1-Establishing of many new industrial development centers, 2-Reconstruction large part of the Egyptian desert land, 3-Contributing to the solution of the unemployment problem in Egypt, 4-Increasing economic growth rates, 5-Purification Egyptian environment from pollution and 6-Importance of the project for the Egyptian national security.
This giant project will include establishment of new industrial centers which will be soon developed to industrial cities with activities base on the natural minerals and rock resources around these axes. It is noteworthy to mention that many investors do not know where to investment and what are the suitable projects for their aims and this project will open a lot of suitable projects for investment. For example, El Korimat/Beni Suif- El Zaafran development axes is suitable for cement, lime production, marble and alabaster decorating stones, building raw materials and processing of glass sand and kaolin. Moreover, it is also suitable for manufacturing of precipitated calcium carbonate and activated calcium carbonate which have many industrial uses.
It will contribute to the reconstruction of a large part of the Egyptian desert, where an area of this segment is about 25% of Egypt area. Nor will be spent substantial funds on infrastructure as most of those axes have good roads, and include some power electric lines and water pipe lines. In addition, it will cause considerable activities in the Upper Egyptian governorates; the Red Sea and will correct population distribution in Egypt, where the diversity of activities on those axes will reduce population pressure on some heavily populated governorates such as Cairo, Alexandria and some Delta areas. Moreover, It involves multiple industrial activities which will contribute significantly solution of the unemployment problem in Egypt. It will contribute in creating many job opportunities, the new investment projects will introduce modern techniques and advanced training opportunities and will raise the technical level of the Egyptian labor.
There is no doubt that this project will open huge areas of investment for industries associated with natural minerals, ores and rocks, and others, and would open new areas and diversified export. It will contribute to the revitalization of the Egyptian economy which will cause higher rates of economic growth and consequently will help to raise the standard of living of Egyptian society
From the environment point of view, the new industrial centers outside the densely populated areas will reduce pollution levels in the major cities such as Cairo, Giza, Alexandria and other major cities, where it will be transferring some of the industrial activities in those cities to the new development axes in the Eastern Desert. For example, plants for fertilizer industries and phosphoric acid can be constructed near the sources of phosphate deposits near to those axes, rather than transported the phosphates thousands of kilometers and manufacture it at areas of dense populations. As well as processing plants and the preparation of marble and granite can be transferred to those new development axes which will be close to its sources, in addition to reducing pollution levels that exceeded all global rates, particularly in the major cities of Egypt.
It is important to mention that this project is of paramount importance to the national security as the reconstruction of this vast part of the Eastern Desert will make it more inhabited populated and diverse activities, and therefore would be an obstacle to any infiltration or external aggression on the land of Egypt. This project could be also a refuge and a safe haven for many of the population of the Delta areas likely to be exposed to flooding due to the expect future rise in the sea level in the Mediterranean because of the melting of large quantities of snow in the polar regions of the Earth due to the global expected rising of temperature.
Asking for sponcers for this project
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