Monitoring and Assessment of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Surface Seawater along Alexandria Coasts, Egypt
1Omayma E. Ahmed , 1Sawsan A. Mahmoud and 2Abd El Rahman M. Mousa1 Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt
2Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
A study on petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater along the coast of the Alexandria, Egypt was conducted during 2014 - 2015. The concentrations of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in seawater samples were measured at 13 stations, analyzed by gas chromatography; Ultraviolet and FT-IR spectrometry techniques to determine the probable type and/or source of any petroleum pollutants present. The concentrations were found to be in the range 2421 and 183817 μg/L, with a mean value of 25613.885 μg/L. An attempt was made to compare between petroleum hydrocarbons in Alexandria seawater with many other marine coasts, total petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sea water are found to be above the admissible environmental levels. Different diagnostic criteria such as unresolved / resolved compound ratio, pristane / phytane, carbon preference index of n-alkanes, pristane / n. heptadecane and phytane / n. octadecane were used to distinguish between petrogenic and biogenic inputs. Results of the present study have led to better understanding of factors controlling the processes of pollution of in Alexandria sea waters and provide important implications when implementing mitigation pollution management planes for the Alexandria Harbors. In view of mitigation, the outfalls from shipment activities loading / unloading operations and municipal agricultural waters resulting from Alexandria Governorate should be controlled for the benefit of the public health and the aquatic life.