دور الجيولوجيا في الحفاظ علي التراث الأثري
هذا الكتاب يوضح دور الجيولوجيا في الحفاظ علي التراث الأثري بمنطقة هضبة الأهرامات والواحات الخارجة بمصر، وكيف تساعد الدراسات الجيولوجية في المحافظة علي التراث الأثري. هذه الدراسة تمثل إضافة جديدة في مفهوم الاستفادة من علوم الأرض في الحفاظ علي الآثار المصرية.
Geology and Archeological Heritage: pyramids and El Kharga Oasis areas, Egypt
A.B. Salmana, M.M. El-Sankarya, M.M. Salehb, F.M. Howaric A. M. Wali (late) d
a: Nuclear Material Authority, P.O. Box 530, El-aadi, Cairo, Egypt, b: Faculty of Archaeology, Department of Conser-vation, Cairo University, Egypt, c: College of Natural & Health Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, d: Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, Cairo University, Egypt
Publishing house: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishin
Number of pages: 164 Published on:31-1-2021
Stock: Available Category: Geosciences
ISBN-13: 978-620-3-30721-4 ISBN-10:203307211
EAN: 9786203307214 Book language: English
The present book deals with the study of the geological phenomena to be applied in minimizing the natural hazards on some archeological heritage sites in El Giza Pyramids Plateau and El Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The space images are interpreted and analyzed to define the main geological features for constructing photogeologic maps. During field study these maps were checked and geologic maps were constructed and most of the promising geological phenomena were documented.
In El Giza Pyramids Plateau it is found during this study that the main hazards are controlled by: Rocks and foundation bed instability due to the presence of weak zones as a result of faulting and fracturing effects. Some of these faults could be of capable type. Moreover, the presence of karstification phenomenon and caving due to the combined effect of the geologic structural pattern, type of sedimentary rock units, ground water circulation, rains, humidity and surrounding environmental polluting agents are forming another hazards. The weathering, erosion factors and man-made actions represent additional deterioration factors on the monumental complex in this important site.
According to the above detected hazards, the following points are recommended for El Pyramids Plateau Monumental Complex:
*Accurate fixing, treatment and supporting works for the easy slide blocks in the small escarpments nearby Khafre, Mankare pyramids. The zone of the NW-SE trending fractures which dissecting the foundation bed rock at the north eastern part of Khufu Pyramid should be also treated.
*An application of suitable geophysical studies to explore the attitudes of the major faults, especially those bearing a northwest trend and caves in El Giza Pyramids monumental complex. This is rather important to find out the best solution to restore and strengthen the weak zones and to overcome any serious hazard in the future.
*Recent tectonics study is of prime importance and is strongly recommended. This study is used to determine the association of earthquakes with seismically active structures which can bear a real hazard on some parts of the monumental complex site in El Giza Pyramids Plateau. This study should include investigation about surface faulting potential to identify capable faults. If the presence of capable faults is proved, it is necessary to study their chronology. The dating of these faults can be determined by a number of techniques such as structural superposition, stratigraphic superposition and geomorphologic and isotopic dating methods.
*It is important to mention that the Great Sphinx is associated with marly limestone and marl which are soft and characterized by numerous fractures intersection. Moreover, the Sphinx its self is suffering from fractures influence. In addition to other deterioration factors, fractures form a real hazard on the Sphinx. If there is any possibility for earthquakes hazard, even with small magnitude, it can dramatically affect this important monument. So, from this point the importance of determination of any nearby capable faults and their relation with earthquakes is very essential.
*The ground water situation in the Great Sphinx zone should be watched and must be kept in a suitable and safe level. This is rather important, because the underground water can form a real hazard on the Sphinx site. This is because the Sphinx is located at a lower level at the eastern slope of El Giza Pyramids Plateau and can be subjected to a great hazard due to ground water seepage.
Based on the present study of the geological phenomena in El Kharga Oasis monumental sites, it is found that the most remarkable hazards are summarized in the following main factors:
Ground water and rains; the ground water effect is rather clear in the site of Hibis Temple due to its presence in a relatively low geographic level in El Kharga Oasis Depression. The source of the ground is mainly from the irrigation water used for the dense cultivated nearby areas. The rains are scarce in this area, however, they form a real hazard on the monuments contains mud brick structures like El Bagawat, El Ghueita and Qasr Zayyan sites.
Sand dunes form a real hazard on most of the monumental sites. It is found that these dunes are moving fast and partly accumulate nearby some monumental sites and completely destroy some relatively recent villages and some cultivated lands. Moreover, these dunes represent a near source for sandy winds storms which make wind erosions are very effective in these sites.
Another important hazard factor is the biological action of birds and other minute organisms. Moreover, the man made deterioration factor is not uncommon.
According to the above detected hazards, the following points are recommended for El Kharga archeological heritage sites:
*The ground water situation in the site of HIbis Temple should be watched and must be kept in a suitable and safe level. This is rather important, because the under ground water can form a real hazard on the foundation bed of this temple. The water source should be blocked by constructing some isolating barriers on the bases of correct study for the under ground water and seepage conditions. De-watering of the soil under the temple is recommended, but this should be based on scientific bases to prevent any collapse in the foundation bed. Grouting can be recommended. But the zone to be grouted, the type of grout to be choose, and the likely extent of the grout penetration under a given pressure. Also the nature of soil and the practical experiences can demonstrate the spacing of grout holes in different soil types.
*Performing a detailed study for sand dunes around all monumental sites in El Kharga Oasis. This study should include the wind dynamics, rates of dunes movements in each direction, the factors controlling dune movements and their accumulations in such arid environment. Applying all possible techniques to reduce the biological action on all the monumental sites. That is because the biologic effect is very dangerous especially on the reliefs (drawings) of the archeological sites.
*At the end of this study a Plan for conservation and restoration of some archaeological sites in El Giza Pyramids Plateau and El- Kharga Oasis are included. This plan is very useful and can be easy applied and it also represents an educational approach for this important field.