Uranium Exploration إستكشاف اليورانيوم

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معدن اليورانينيت 

 

Chemical Formula: UO2 , Uranium Oxide

  • Class: Oxides and Hydroxides
  • Uses: a major ore of uranium and radium, a source of helium and as a mineral specimen 

Uraninite is a highly radioactive and interesting mineral. It is the chief ore of uranium and radium, which is found in trace amounts. Helium was first discovered on the earth in samples of uraninite. Radium and helium are found in uraninite because they are the principle products of uranium's decay process. Weathered or otherwise altered uraninite produces some wonderful by-products such as the beautiful uranyl phosphate minerals like autunite and torbernite as well as uranyl silicates like sklodoskite andcuprosklodowskite. The structure is analogous to the structure of fluorite, CaF2. The structure of fluorite is highly symmetrical and forms isometric crystals such as cubes and octahedrons. Flourite also has four directions of perfect cleavage that produces octahedrons. However, in uraninite, crystals are rare and the cleavage is not usually observable.

A variety of uraninite is called pitchblende which is a combination of mostly uraninite and some other minerals. It is generally softer and less dense and usually botyroidal or earthy. Remember, this is a highly radioactive mineral and should be stored away from other minerals that are affected by radioactivity and human exposure should definitely be limited.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Color is black to steel black with tints of brown.
  • Luster is submetallic to pitchy and dull.
  • Transparency crystals are opaque.
  • Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
  • Crystal Habit is typically massive botryoidal, earthy, lamellar and reniform aggregates. Well-formed individual cubic and octahedral crystals are rare.
  • Cleavage is poor in four directions (octahedral), and is rarely seen.
  • Fracture is conchoidal.
  • Hardness is 5 - 6
  • Specific Gravity is near 10 when pure but often massive specimens are closer to 7 (heavy even for metallic minerals)
  • Streak is brownish black.
  • Associated Minerals include cassiteritepyritenative silverautuniteuranophaneuranocircitetorbernitemeta-torberniteand other uranium minerals.
  • Other Characteristics: highly radioactive!
  • Notable Occurences include Bergen, Germany; Autun, France; Cornwall, England; Mitchell Co., North Carolina and Mt. Spokane, Washington, USA; Zaire; wilberforce and Great Bear Lake, Canada; Portugal and France.
  • Best Field Indicators are luster, color, radioactivity and streak.

Ref:.http://www.google.com.eg/imgres?imgurl=http://www.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/sklodows/sklodows.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/sklodows/sklodows.htm&h=360&w=480&sz=56&tbnid=tyCfHvioweoQfM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=129&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dphotos%2Bof%2Buranium%2Bminerals&zoom=1&q=photos+of+uranium+minerals&usg=__d9rdLHYPa5m1ZN0lGVW0xKvNYHg=&sa=X&ei=nsfXTMamH4-V4Aac-6nvBw&ved=0CAsQ9QEwAA

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 General

 Section 6 of the Nuclear Energy Act (YEL 990/ 1987) stipulates hat the use of nuclear energy must be safe; it shall not cause injury to people, or damage to the environment or property. In the siting of a nuclear power plant, the aim is to protect the plant against external threats as well as to minimise any environmental detrimen its and threats that might arise from it.

Other factors to be considered include: impact on land use, socio-economic impacts, traffic arrangements, reliable electric power transfer to the national grid and specific factors relating to the security of supply of electric power. Prior to the licensing procedure proper, the  environmental effects of the nuclear power plant project are studied and evaluated by environmental impact assessment (EIA). The EIA procedure falls under the Act on Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure (EIA) (468/1994) and the Decree on EIA (268/1999). In addition, Finland’s neighbouring countries shall be heard where deemed necessary by virtue of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context [1]. The Nuclear Energy Act prescribes that there must be a decision in principle of the Council of State, approved by Parliament, stating that the nuclear power plant project is in the overall good of society. An application for the decision in principle is submitted to the Council of State; the Ministry of Trade and Industry submits it to the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for a preliminary safety evaluation and requests statements from the Ministry of the Environment, the municipal council of the candidate municipality and its neighbouring municipalities.

The Nuclear Energy Decree (YEA 161/1998) stipulates that an environmental impact assessment report drawn up as a result of the EIA procedure shall be appended to the application for the decision in principle. The Council of State can consider a positive decision in principle only in case the candidate municipality has issued a statement in favour of the facility’s construction.Detailed licensing requirements applicable to the construction and operation of nuclear power plants are stipulated in the Nuclear Energy Act and Decree. The granting of a licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act requires that the project and its environmental impacts are reported to the Commission of the European Communities, not later than six months prior to the granting of the licence, as required in article 37 of EURATOM Treaty and in Commission Recommendation 99/829/Euratom [2], which supplements the Treaty.

The Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) and Decree (895/1999) prescribe planning pertaining to land use and construction. Regional plans and local master plans are, by nature, far-reaching, general land use plans. Detailed plans are drawn up for the detailed arrangement, construction and development of land use at local level.

Construction is not allowed on shore zones belonging to the coastal area of a sea or of a water system unless the area is covered by a detailed plan (a detailed shore plan) or by a specific local master plan. When deciding about a land use plan and a construction permit the authorities consider the special requirements pertaining to construction work on the nuclear power plant site and in its surroundings. Section 58 of the Nuclear Energy Act decrees that before a town plan 1 or building plan1  is drawn up for the area intended for the site of a nuclear facility, and prior to the approval of such a plan where a site is reserved for the construction of a nuclear facility, a statement must be obtained from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. In addition to the above, the environmental permit procedure prescribed in the Environmental Permit Procedures Act (731/1991) applies to the construction and operation of nuclear power 1 The terms “town plan” and “building plan” have been replaced with a “detailed plan” by virtue of the Land Use and plants. Rescue plans with provision for nuclear power plant accidents are dealt with in the Act on Rescue Services (561/1999) and the Decree on Rescue Services (857/1999) as well as in the Ministry of the Interior Order 1/97 [3] and the associated Guideline A:57 [4].

Requirements applicable to the limitation of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants are presented in chapter 3 of the Council of State Decision (VNP 395/1991) on the general regulations for the safety of nuclear power plants. Section 20 of the Decision, for its part, requires that the most important nuclear power plant safety functions shall remain operable in spite of any natural phenomena estimated possible on site or other events external to the plant. Supplementary guidelines pertaining to safety functions can be found in Guides YVL 2.6 and YVL 2.8.

Guide YVL 2.6 concerns the effects of seismic events and how they should be considered in the structural concepts of nuclear power plants. Guide YVL 2.8 deals with probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for nuclear power plants. STUK Guides YVL 7.1–7.11 and YVL 7.18 deal with onsite and offsite radiation safety and with licensees’ emergency response plans. This guide sets forth requirements for safety of the population and the environment in nuclear power plant siting. It also sets out the general basis for procedures employed by other competent authorities when they issue regulations or grant licences. On request STUK issues casespecific statements about matters relating to planning and about other matters relating to land use in the environment of nuclear power plants. Alternative candidate plant sites may be simultaneously examined during the EIA process and in the application for a decision in principle. In accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act, applications for a construction licence and an operating licence may only concern one plant site.

 

 

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 CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION .......................................... 7

 Planning for uranium exploration ........................ 9

Uranium: a strategic commodity?

A general discussion ........................................ 11

 Uranium exploration planning and strategy ........ 15

Discussion ...................................................... 26

Contractual arrangements ................................ 31

E. Müller-Kahle

Discussion ...................................................... 45

II. THE ROLE OF NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS ..................................................... 49

The Geological Survey's contribution to uranium exploration in Canada - a commentary ............. 51

A.G. Darnley

Discussion ..................................................... 73

The role of the Geological Survey Department in national mineral development - the Zambian example ......................................................... 77

N.J. Money

Discussion ..................................................... 86

III. THE ROLE OF OUTSIDE INTERESTS ................................................. 89

The role of outside interests ........................... 91

H.D. Fuchs

Discussion ..................................................... 97

Attracting foreign companies   (Summary) ... ...103

  J. Bourrel

 Discussion .................................................. 106

IV. THE ROLE OF STATE EXPLORATION ORGANIZATIONS ........................................ 109

The role of Government and Government organizations in uranium exploration planning and practice in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ...... Ill

M.B. Vlasov, L.G. Podolyako

Discussion ................................................... 118

Uranium exploration in India - rspective and

 strategy (Abstract)  ..................................... 121

  S.C. Verma, J.C. Nagabhushana, K.K. Sinha,Discussion .......................................... 122

R.V. Viswanath, A.C. Saraswat 

V. CONCLUSIONS ...................................... 125

List of Participants ........................................ 131

A.Y. Smith, M. Tauchid

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 The Use of Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry by M.I.M. Exploration—A Case Study From the Mount Isa Inlier, North West Queensland, Australia

Jayawardhana, P.M.[1],and Sheard, S.N.[1]

1. M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd.

 ABSTRACT  

This paper describes how airborne radiometrics has been used by M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd. (MIMEX) to aid mineral exploration. The case study for this paper focuses on the Mount Isa airborne survey undertaken from 1990–92. During this survey both radiometrics and magnetics were recorded over 639 170 line kilometres. Due to the perceived value of the radiometric data, stringent calibration procedures, including the creation of a test range, were adopted. In addition to the newly flown areas, agreements were entered into to acquire existing data (76 760 line kilometres) from other companies. These were reprocessed and stitched in to give an overall ‘seamless join’ to images. The total area covered by the Mount Isa airborne survey was 1 513 000 km 2. Over the last five years MIMEX has undertaken a number of projects and generated a number of products to maximise the in-house use of radiometrics for mineral exploration. This paper highlights these products, techniques, and results based on radiometric signatures of major mines in the Mount Isa Inlier; radioelement contour maps; geomagnetic/radiometric interpretation maps; lithological mapping; regolith mapping; geochemical sampling; and spatial modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Due to the recent introduction of GIS technology and better techniques for handling MIMEX’s high quality digital data, there has been a revived interest in making more use of image data sets. The integration of raster and vector data sets for both spectral and spatial modelling has highlighted the vast potential that lies ahead.

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* يشتمل هذا الملف علي صفات الأمان الخاصة باختيار المحطات النووية

* الملف محمل بالكامل ضمن هذا الموقع وهو للاستخدام غير التجاري

*No for commercial use

 

Safety criteria for siting a

nuclear power plant

 S T U K • S Ä T E I L Y T U R V A K E S K U S • S T R Å L S Ä K E R H E T S C E N T R A L E N 

R A D I A T I O N  A N D  N U C L E A R  S A F E T Y  A U T H O R I T Y

 

Contents:

1 General 3

2 Plant site and surroundings 4

3 Safety factors affecting site selection 5

3.1 External events affecting safety 5

3.2 Radioactive releases 5

4 Regulatory control by the Radiation and Nuclear

Safety Authority 6

4.1 EIA procedure 6

4.2 Decision in principle 6

4.3 Construction licence and operating licence 6

5 References 7

 

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* هذا الملف يمثل عرض عن اختيار مواقع المفاعلات النووية بالصين

* هذا الملف للاستخدام الغير تجاري

* For non commercial uses

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 Metallogenic Condition and Regularity of Interlayered Oxidation Zone-type Sandstone Uranium Deposit in Suthwestern Part of Turpan-Hami Basin, Northwestern China

 

(Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, 100029)

ABSTRACT

Regional geological surveying and drilling evaluation in recent years show that there are very large potential resources of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. According to the characteristics of tectonic evolution and sedimentary cover of the basin, the evolution stages and types of the basin are divided, and the favorable development stages for the ore-bearing formation and the formation of uranium deposits in the evolution process are identified. The metallogenic conditions of uranium deposits are deeply discussed from four aspects: basic tectonics, paleoclimate evolution, hydrogeology and uranium source of the region. All these have laid an important foundation for accurate prediction and evaluation of uranium resources in this region. The research indicates that the uranium metallogeny is a process of long-term, multi-stage and pulsation. The authors try to ascertain the role of organic matter in concentrating uranium .The organic matter is of humic type in sandstone host-rock in the studied area, whose original mother material mainly belongs to terrestrial high plant. The maturity of the organic matter is very low, being in low-grade stage of thermal evolution. Correlation analysis and separation experiments show that uranium concentration is closely related with the organic matter, and the organic matter in uranium ore is mainly in the form of humic acid adsorption and humate. For this  leason the total organic carbon content is often increased in the geochemical redox zone in epigenetic sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is suggested that the north of China is of great potential for sandstone-type uranium resources.

XIANG Weidong CHEN Zhaobo CHEN Zuyi YIN Jinshuang
(In Chinese)

 

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SUMMARY

This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cogniscance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materialis e.

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أهمية البرامج النووية للدول العربية

* المقال محمل بالكامل ضمن جريدة اقتصاد الغد، العدد الثامن عشر بتاريخ الأحد  24 أغسطس 2008

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Not for commercial use

 يشتمل هذا الملف علي تغير تكاليف إنشاء المحطات النـــــــووية منذ عام 1974 ، وذلك بتفاصيلها مما يجعل القارئ علي دراية تامة بهذا الموضوع الذي يشغل بال العديد من الدول العربية

COSTS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS — WHAT WENT WRONG?

No nuclear power plants in the United States ordered since 1974 will be completed, and many dozens of partially constructed plants have been abandoned. What cut off the growth of nuclear power so suddenly and so completely? The direct cause is not fear of reactor accidents, or of radioactive materials released into the environment, or of radioactive waste. It is rather that costs have escalated wildly, making nuclear plants too expensive to build. State commissions that regulate them require that utilities provide electric power to their customers at the lowest possible price. In the early 1970s this goal was achieved through the use of nuclear power plants. However, at the cost of recently completed plants, analyses indicate that it is cheaper to generate electricity by burning coal. Here we will attempt to understand how this switch occurred. It will serve as background for the next chapter, which presents the solution to these problems.

Several large nuclear power plants were completed in the early 1970s at a typical cost of $170 million, whereas plants of the same size completed in 1983 cost an average of $1.7 billion, a 10-fold increase. Some plants completed in the late 1980s have cost as much as $5 billion, 30 times what they cost 15 years earlier. Inflation, of course, has played a role, but the consumer price index increased only by a factor of 2.2 between 1973 and 1983, and by just 18% from 1983 to 1988. What caused the remaining large increase? Ask the opponents of nuclear power and they will recite a succession of horror stories, many of them true, about mistakes, inefficiency, sloppiness, and ineptitude. They will create the impression that people who build nuclear plants are a bunch of bungling incompetents. The only thing they won't explain is how these same "bungling incompetents" managed to build nuclear power plants so efficiently, so rapidly, and so inexpensively in the early 1970s.

For example, Commonwealth Edison, the utility serving the Chicago area, completed its Dresden nuclear plants in 1970-71 for $146/kW, its Quad Cities plants in 1973 for $164/kW, and its Zion plants in 1973-74 for $280/kW. But its LaSalle nuclear plants completed in 1982-84 cost $1,160/kW, and its Byron and Braidwood plants completed in 1985-87 cost $1880/kW — a 13-fold increase over the 17-year period. Northeast Utilities completed its Millstone 1,2, and 3 nuclear plants, respectively, for $153/kW in 1971, $487/kW in 1975, and $3,326/kW in 1986, a 22-fold increase in 15 years. Duke Power, widely considered to be one of the most efficient utilities in the nation in handling nuclear technology, finished construction on its Oconee plants in 1973-74 for $181/kW, on its McGuire plants in 1981-84 for $848/kW, and on its Catauba plants in 1985-87 for $1,703/kW, a nearly 10-fold increase in 14 years. Philadelphia Electric Company completed its two Peach Bottom plants in 1974 at an average cost of $382 million, but the second of its two Limerick plants, completed in 1988, cost $2.9 billion — 7.6 times as much. A long list of such price escalations could be quoted, and there are no exceptions. Clearly, something other than incompetence is involved. Let's try to understand what went wrong.

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 The Use of Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry by M.I.M. Exploration—A Case Study From the Mount Isa Inlier, North West Queensland, Australia

 Jayawardhana, P.M. [1],and Sheard, S.N.[1]

1. M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd.

 

ABSTRACT

This paper describes how airborne radiometrics has been used by M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd. (MIMEX) to aid mineral exploration. The case study for this paper focuses on the Mount Isa airborne survey undertaken from 1990–92. During this survey both radiometrics and magnetics were recorded over 639 170 line kilometres. Due to the perceived value of the radiometric data, stringent calibration procedures, including the creation of a test range, were adopted. In addition to the newly flown areas, agreements were entered into to acquire existing data (76 760 line kilometres) from other companies. These were reprocessed and stitched in to give an overall ‘seamless join to images. The total area covered by the Mount Isa airborne survey was 1 513 000 km

Over the last five years MIMEX has undertaken a number of projects and generated a number of products to maximise the in-house use of radiometrics for mineral exploration. This paper highlights these products, techniques, and results based on radiometric signatures of major mines in the Mount Isa Inlier; radioelement contour maps; geomagnetic/radiometric interpretation maps; lithological mapping; regolith mapping; geochemical sampling; and spatial modelling using geographical information systems (GIS).

Due to the recent introduction of GIS technology and better techniques for handling MIMEX’s high quality digital data, there has been a revived interest in making more use of image data sets. The integration of raster and vector data sets for both spectral and spatial modelling has highlighted the vast potential that lies ahead.

* For non commercial uses

البحث محمل في هذا الملف

 

 

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Reactor Types

1.Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR)

PWRs use nuclear-fission to heat water under pressure within the reactor. This water is then circulated through a heat exchanger (called a "steam generator") where steam is produced to drive an electric generator. The water used as a coolant in the reactor and the water used to provide steam to the electric turbines exists in separate closed loops that involve no substantial discharges to the environment. Of the 104 fully licensed reactors in the United States, 69 are PWRs.

 www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors

/pwr.html

 

2.Boiling Water Reactors (BWR)

The remaining 35 operable reactors in the United States are BWRs.  BWRs allow fission-based heat from the reactor core to boil the reactor’s coolant water into the steam that is used to generate electricity. General Electric built all boiling water reactors now operational in the United States. Areva NP and Westinghouse BNFL have each designed BWRs.www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_

reactors/bwr.html

 

3.Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR)

PHWRs have been promoted primarily in Canada and India, with additional commercial reactors operating in South Korea, China, Romania, Pakistan, and Argentina. Canadian-designed PHWRs are often called "CANDU" reactors. Siemens, ABB (now part of Westinghouse), and Indian firms have also built commercial PHWR reactors. Heavy water reactors now in commercial operation use heavy water as moderators and coolants.  The Canadian firm, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), has also recently proposed a modified PHWR (the ACR series) which would only use heavy water as a moderator.  Light water would cool these reactors. No successful effort has been made to license commercial PHWRs in the United States. PHWRs have been popular in several countries because they use less expensive natural (not enriched) uranium fuels and can be built and operated at competitive costs. The continuous refueling process used in PHWRs has raised some proliferation concerns because it is difficult for international inspectors to monitor.  Additionally, the relatively high Pu-239 content of PHWR spent fuel has also raised proliferation concerns.  The importance of these claims is challenged by their manufacturers.  PHWRs, like most reactors, can use fuels other than uranium and the ACR series of reactors is intended to use slightly enriched fuels.  Particular interest has been shown in India in thorium-based fuel cycles.

 http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_

reactors/china/candu.html

 

4.High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR):

HTGRs are distinguished from other gas-cooled reactors by the higher temperatures attained within the reactor. Such higher temperatures might permit the reactor to be used as an industrial heat source in addition to generating electricity.  Among the future uses for which HTGRs are being considered is the commercial generation of hydrogen from water.  In some cases, HTGR turbines run directly by the gas that is used as a coolant.  In other cases, steam or alternative hot gases such as nitrogen are produced in a heat exchanger to run the power generators.  Recent proposals have favored helium as the gas used as an HTGR coolant.  The most famous U.S. HTGR example was the Fort Saint Vrain reactor that operated between 1974 and 1989. Other HTGRs have operated elsewhere, notably in Germany. Small research HTGR prototypes presently exist in Japan and China. Commercial HTGR designs are now promoted in China, South Africa, the United States, the Netherlands, and France though none of these is yet commercially marketed.  The proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) in the U.S. will most likely be a helium-based HTGR, if it is funded to completion.

http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/designs/mhtgr/mhtgr.

GIF

5.Sodium-cooled reactors reactors

Sodium-cooled reactors are included on this list primarily because of proposals to build a Toshiba 4S reactor in Alaska. Sodium-cooled reactors use the molten (liquid) metal sodium as a coolant to transfer reactor generated heat to an electricity generation unit.  Sodium-cooled reactors are often associated with “fast breeder reactors (FBRs)” though this is technically not the case in the 4S design.

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دراسات جيولوجية مقترحة  لتقليل مخاطر الزلازل علي موقع مفاعل القوي بمنطقة الضبعة، الساحل الشمالي، مصر

 

هذه ترجمة لعنوان البحث المنشور عام 1995 من إعداد عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان

البحث تم تحميله بالكامل علي الموقع

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هذا التقرير غاية في الأهمية لجميع العاملين في مجال استكشاف وتعدين واستخلاص اليورانيوم حيث يوجد به فصول تفصيلية لمناقشة تلك الموضوعات كما يلي (التقرير محمل بالكامل في هذا الموقع بغرض الثقافة النووية وليس لأي أغراض تجارية):

 

1. INTRODUCTION 

2. HISTORY OF URANIUM MINING

3. CLASSIFICATION OF DEPOSITS.

3.1. Definition and examples 

3.1.1. Unconformity-related ...

3.1.2. Sandstone

3.1.3. Quartz-pebble conglomerate 

3.1.4. Veins 

3.1.5. Breccia complex 

3.1.6. Intrusive 

3.1.7. Phosphorite 

3.1.8. Collapse breccia pipe 

3.1.9.Volcanic

3. Surficial.9

3.1.11. Metasomatite 

3.1.12.Metamorphic

3.1.13. Lignite.

3.1.14.  Blackshale

3.2. The exploitable deposits 

4. PARAMETERS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN ASSESSING A

URANIUM ORE RESOURCE

4.1.Location

4.2. Shape 

4.3. Size 

4.4. Depth 

4.5. Orientation

4.6. Geotectonics 

4.7. Mineralogy 

4.8. Hydrology

4.9. Boundary conditions ...............................................................................................................13

5. PROJECT IMPACT AND APPROVAL.

5.1. Project proposal

5.2. EIS guidelines

5.3. EIS report.. EIS approval process

MINING.............................................................................................................................................16

6.1. Benefits greater than liabilities 

6.2. ALARA .

6.3. Mining methods

6.3.1. Open pit 

6.3.2. Underground

6.3.3. In situ leaching (ISL)

6.4. Influence on mining methods

6.4.1. Social and legal (regulatory) .

6.4.2. Resource recovery 

 

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نشرت فى 18 سبتمبر 2010 بواسطة absalman

 

* يشتمل هذا الملف علي البحوث التي ألقيت بمؤتمر الوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية الذي عقد في فينا في أكتوبر 2000

* الغرض من ذلك إعطاء الفرصة لشباب الباحثين للإطلاع علي البحوث في هذا المجال الهام، وخاصة هؤلاء الذين لا تتاح لهم فرصة للمشاركة في تلك المؤتمرات الدولية 

*بحوث المؤتمر محملة بالكامل ضمن هذا الملف

* ليست للإستخدام التجاري ولكنها لنشر الثقافة النووية

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عن جريدة المصري اليوم:

أعلن الدكتور حسن يونس، وزير الكهرباء والطاقة، عن اختيار موقع النجيلة، جنوب محافظة مرسى مطروح، لاستكمال البرنامج النووى بعد إنشاء ٤ مفاعلات نووية بـ«الضبعة»، مؤكداً أن «النجيلة» يعد الموقع الأكثر صلاحية لاستكمال البرنامج النووى المصرى.

وقال يونس، فى بيان صحفى أمس، إن هيئة المحطات النووية انتهت من إعداد الدراسات والوثائق لاستخراج «إذن قبول» لإنشاء أول محطة نووية مصرية بالضبعة، منوها بأن مركز الأمان النووى - الجهة المانحة لإذن القبول والتراخيص - قدم عدة ملاحظات يتم الرد عليها.

واستعرض يونس خلال اجتماعه أمس مع مجلس إدارة هيئة المحطات النووية تقريراً حول الخطوات التى تتخذها الهيئة لتفعيل قرار الرئيس مبارك ببدء تنفيذ البرنامج النووى.

وحول المشاركة المحلية فى بناء المفاعل المصرى، ذكر الوزير، أنه تم إعداد حصر للجهات التى يمكن أن تشارك فى تعظيم المكون المحلى، وأنه من المنتظر عقد ورشة عمل لهذه الجهات لتعريفها بمعايير ومتطلبات الجودة للعمل بالمشروعات النووية.

وتضمن التقرير، الذى استعرضه وزير الكهرباء، أن هيئة المحطات النووية قامت بإعداد المستندات والوثائق الخاصة باستخراج إذن قبول الموقع لإنشاء المحطة النووية، وفقاً لمتطلبات المركز القومى للأمان النووى والوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية، مشيراً إلى تسليم المستندات إلى هيئة الطاقة الذرية، لافتا إلى أن مركز الأمان النووى قدم عدة ملاحظات تم استيفاؤها، ويقوم المركز بدراستها لإصدار إذن قبول الموقع.

وأوضح التقرير إجراء مسح شامل لسوق المفاعلات المتاحة، ودراسة السمات الرئيسية والخصائص الفنية لـ ١٤ نوعاً من المفاعلات المبردة بالماء العادى والثقيل.

ونوّه إلى تقديم الشركات الروسية والفرنسية والأمريكية والكندية والكورية واليابانية، وهى المصنـّعة والمصدرة لتلك المفاعلات، عروضاً بالقاهرة خلال يوليو وأغسطس الماضيين، حول خصائص تلك المفاعلات، ومن المنتظر أن تقوم الشركة الصينية بتقديم عرضها خلال هذا الشهر.

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NUCLEAR POWER  PLANT SITE SELECTION 

 

 

ABDELATY B. SALMAN 

Ex Ex-Chairman Chairman

Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, Egypt

 

 

I. Introduction

The aim of this article is to present the The aim of this article is to present the requirements and characteristics for the requirements and characteristics for the nuclear power plant site selection. nuclear power plant site selection.

It will focus on the treatments of the main It will focus on the treatments of the main geologic and tectonic features and the geologic and tectonic features and the nature of the site. nature of the site.

Sitting factors and criteria are important in Sitting factors and criteria are important in assuring that radiological doses from assuring that radiological doses from normal operation and postulated accidents normal operation and postulated accidents will be acceptably low. will be acceptably low.

المحاضرة محملة ضمن هوقعي هذا

 

 

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The Second Gulf Conference and Exhibition on ‘Environment and Sustainability’

16-19/February, 2009 - Kuwait

Role of the Nuclear Programs in the Sustainable Development and the Environment Preservation in the Arabian Countries

Salman, A.B.

Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O.Box: 530 El Maadi, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract

The nuclear programs in the Arabian countries should be taken seriously and need remarkable efforts to be able to share in the countries sustainable development projects. The important first step is the understanding of the nuclear fuel cycle and its demands. Where to explore and find reasonable uranium resources and how to extract uranium from them. It is known that the Arabian countries have lot of oil and gasses, but these are considered as fossil resources that will be diminish with few tens of years.

Therefore, the utilization and need for the nuclear energy will be essential. It should be noted that the importance of the water issue in the Arab countries is well known "as the situation faced by the countries of the Middle East and North Africa is very critical". So, one of the main demands to nuclear programs is desalination of see water to overcome the water shortage problems.

In addition, the development projects are expanded year after year in our Arabian countries and the need for more energy is essential for the sustainable development of the ongoing and future projects.

The nuclear programs play an important role in the environment preservation where no CO2, SO2 and NO2 gases emitted. Radiation monitoring is essential for checking the land, soil, air, water and indoors radiometric pollutions. Therefore, the construction of baseline radiometric maps is of fatal importance for the Arabian countries. These maps can be used as historical record for watching any radiological hazards at any part of the country.

للحصول علي البحث كاملا يرجي الاتصال بي:

[email protected]

 

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Egypt invites tenders for nuclear power plant

From:

Zaf Coelho <[email protected]>

 

To:

[email protected]

 

 

 

28-29 September 2010, Grand Hyatt Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

Visit Website

 

Egypt invites tenders for nuclear power plant

 

Dear Abdelaty Salman

 Egypt plans to start an international bidding process this year for its first nuclear energy plant, Electricity and Energy Minister Hassan Younes told state-owned al-Ahram newspaper.

The Arab world's most populous country is aiming to shift away from oil and gas to other sources and has said it wants to build four nuclear power plants by 2025, with the first to start operating in 2019. Officials hope the new nuclear programme will add capacity of up to 4,000 megawatts by 2025.


"Egypt's nuclear project is progressing steadily and we expect to start the tender before the end of this year," Younes told the daily newspaper in an interview published last Saturday. The ministry has invited several firms for consultancy and project briefings, such as the French nuclear reactor maker Areva, engineering group Alstom and Westinghouse Electric Co, he added.

 The government was also looking to Korean and Japanese firms. In June, Russia's atomic energy corporation Rosatom briefed Egyptian energy officials on Russian nuclear power plant technology and design. Last year, Egypt signed a deal with Australia's WorleyParsons for a nuclear power consultancy. The firm was due to begin looking into potential locations for the plant, Egypt's first, including updating studies on the Dabaa site on the Mediterranean coast, where Egypt planned to build a power station in the 1980s. Younes said the studies had concluded that Dabaa was the most suitable location.


"The project is moving ahead on time. Internationally, it takes 8 to 10 years for such projects to bear fruit in developing countries and 12 to 15 in countries where nuclear projects are being set up for the first time," he added.


If you are keen to learn of the nuclear power developments in Egypt and the rest of the MENA region, do not miss the opportunity to attendNuclear Power Middle East & North Africa 2010 which will take place from 28-29 September 2010 in Cairo, Egypt.

 

REQUEST FINAL NUCLEAR POWER MENA BROCHURE VIEW FULL SPEAKER LIST

 

Register Now!

 
With leading international nuclear players sharing their experience, together with world bodies ( IAEAIEAWANO) and nuclear power stakeholders from the MENA region involved in their country's nuclear power programmes, Nuclear Power Middle East & North Africa2010 will be a highly valuable platform for you to update you on the latest industry developments and to gather new ideas from recent projects.Make sure that your next steps towards nuclear power developments are successful and register now to secure your seat!  

Book your hotel room

Learn more about Egypt

 

 

Sponsorship Opportunities

 5 Reasons to Sponsor Nuclear Power Middle East and North Africa 2010 

 Gain new sales leads - Nuclear Power Middle East and North Africa 2010 delegates are an extremely focused group of people with strong business interest in the event. By sponsoring and being present you can profile your company right at the initial stage of the growing nuclear power industry developments in the region.

  • Launch new products or services - Draw attention to your products and brand by using the conference as a launch pad for new developments, products or services. With delegates and the media in attendance, new stories of interest always create a buzz.
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For further information

Contact: Mr. Andrew Beales Sales Manager Phone: +44 207 067 1803 | Email: [email protected]


For more information on sponsorship opportunities or if you wish us to develop a package tailored to your needs - SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES 

 

 

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The Nuclear Power Group is a networking community for nuclear power stakeholders from utilities, operators, regulators, technology providers, advisers and other stakeholders involved or has a keen interest on the emerging nuclear power developments in Southeast Asia, Middle East and North Africa.

 

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Nuclear Power Asia is a premier high quality platform for Asian utility industry professionals and key nuclear power industry stakeholders to get an honest exchange of information to explore the potential of nuclear power in the region and to learn from successful nuclear power industry projects and experiences from the leading operators in the world.

 

 

 

 

 

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نشرت فى 13 أغسطس 2010 بواسطة absalman

أهمية البرامج النووية للدول العربية

مقدمة

    من المعروف أن عددا" كبيرا" من الدول العربية لديها برامج وأنشطة في المجالات النووية، ولكنها تختلف من بلد إلي آخر في الشكل والمضمون، ولكن معظمها في أغلب الأحيان لا تتعدي مقدمة لدورة الوقود النووي، أو بعض الاستخدامات والتطبيقات السلمية للنظائر المشعة في الطب والصناعة والزراعة والإنتاج الحيواني وتشعيع بعض المواد الغذائية لزيادة فترة مقاومتها للتلف.

     ومن الجدير بالذكر أن خامات اليورانيوم وهي التي تعتبر المصدر الرئيسي لليورانيوم اللازم لدورة الوقود النووي لم يتم إثبات تواجدها في الكثير من الدول العربية بطريقة يمكن استغلالها اقتصاديا، كذلك لم يقدر احتياطي الخام لها طبقا لمعايير الوكالة الدولية إلا في الجزائر فقط، ومعظم التقديرات لتلك الاحتياطيات في البلاد العربية تقع تحت نوع الخامات المحتملة أو التنبئية ( أي أنها تقديرات تقريبية جدا"). لذلك يري الكاتب أنه لابد أن يكون لكل دولة عربية برنامج نووي واضح المعالم ـ للاستخدامات السلمية ـ مع التركيز علي عمليات الاستكشاف وتقييم خامات اليورانيوم والعمل علي توفيرها حيث أنه لا يمكن بدأ أي برنامج نووي متكامل بدون وجود خامات اليورانيوم، كذلك هناك صعوبات بالغة في الحصول علي اليورانيوم في الدول المنتجة.

 

 

1- دور البرامج النووية في توفير المياه

 

        تعتبر مشكلة المياه من أهم الموضوعات التي يجب أن نوليها أهمية قصوي، بل لابد من أن تضعها الدول العربية في أولوياتها حيث أن نقصها علي المدي القريب وندرتها علي المدي البعيد يهدد فعلا المشروعات التنموية في العالم العربي. ويري الكاتب أنه يجب البدا من الآن في التخطيط لإنشاء محطات نووية لتحلية المياه.

        فإذا  استعرضنا ما ورد في شبكة المعلومات الدولية عن العالم العربي نجد أنه يتكون من 22 دولة، تمتد من الخليج العربي شرقا حتى المحيط الأطلنطي غربا، وعدد سكانها حوالي 300 مليون نسمة. وتجدر الإشارة إلي أن معدل النمو السكاني  في تلك المنطقة 2,7 %. وطبقا لتقرير عام 2000 والخاص بالتنمية البشرية، نجد أن معدل النمو الاقتصادي في تلك الدول لا تتمشي مع معد\ل النمو السكاني وأن الركيزة الأساسية لدفع عجلة التطور والتنمية هي الطاقة والمياه. ولمعرفة أهمية مدي المياه للدول العربية فإننا نجد أن استخدامات المياه في الزراعة تحتل أعلي نسبة، ثم يلي ذلك الاستخدامـات اليوميـــة والصناعية ( جدول 1)، وهذا يوضح مدي خطورة نقص المياه وتهديده لبرامج التنمية في العالم العربي.

 

جدول 1 : نسبة استخدامات المياه في بعض الدول العربية


الدولة

الاستخدام اليومي

الاستخدام الصناعي

الاستخدام الزراعي

مصر

7

5

88

المملكة العربيةالسعودية

45

8

47

مراكش

6

3

92

الجزائر

22

4

74

تونس

13

7

80

ليبيا

15

10

75

السودان

1

-

99

جيويوتي

28

21

51

الصومال

3

-

97

اليمن

5

2

93

عمان

3

3

94

الامارات العربية

11

9

80

الكويت

64

32

4

العراق

3

5

92

الأردن

29

6

65

سوريا

7

10

83

لبنان

11

4

85

العالم

8

23

69


ويتضح من الجدول1 أن أعلي نسبة من كمية المياه في الدول العربية تستخدم في الأغراض الزراعية وتتدني نسبة المياه المستعملة في الاستخدامات اليومية والصناعية.


وإذا نظرنا من قريب إلي موضوع المصادر المائية‘ فإنه يتضح أن ندرة المياه والنمو السكاني يمثل لب المشكلة في عمليات تنمية المناطق الشبه قارية والتي تشمل الدول العربية. إن الأهمية الأساسية للمياه للمعيشة والتقدم الحضاري توضح أن مشكلة ندرة المياه والتغلب عليها تمثل المعركة الرئيسية للوصل إلي مستوي حياة أفضل في المناطق الفقيرة المشتملة علي تعداد كبير من السكان.


وتجدر الإشارة إلي أن أهمية موضوع المياه في الدول العربية معروف جيدا" حيث أن الوضع الذي يواجه بلدان الشرق الأوسط وشمال إفريقيا هو حرج للغاية، فمثلا يوجد احدي عشرة دولة من بين العشرين دولة الموجودة في هذه المنطقة تستخدم حاليا أكثر من نصف مصادر المياه بها. وأن ليبيا ودول الجزيرة العربية عدا عمان تستخدم 100% من مصادر المياه بها، وهم يعتمدون علي تحلية مياه البحر المكلفة أو السحب من الـ Fossil Water  مع توقع زيادة عدد السكان بطريقة مفزعة.


ولمعرفة مدي خطورة الموضوع مستقبلا سوف نستعرض ما سوف يكون الوضع عليه عام 2025 بناءا" علي دراسات حديثة لتعداد السكان وتقديرات مصادر المياه المتجددة، فمثلا نجد أن لبنان ستواجه ضغطا بالنسبة للمياه Water Stress  حيث أنه سيصل نصيب كل 600 –   1000 فرد 1 مليون متر مكعب ( أي وحدة FU = 1 مليون متر مكعب مياه).

أما مصر والمغرب وسوريا سوف يحدث بها ندرة للمياه Water Scarcity حيث سيصل نصيب كل 1000 إلي 2000 فرد علي واحد مليون متر مكعب مياه. أما الجزائر، البحرين، جيوبوتي الأردن، الكويت، ليبيا، عمان، قطر، السعودية، الصومال، وتونس ودولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة واليمن سوف تقابل مانع مائي Water barrier قبل عام 2025 حيث يوزع واحد مليون متر مكعب ماء علي أكثر من 2000 فرد.

 ويتضح مما تقدم أن هناك مشكلة طاحنة بالنسبة لنقص المياه يتوقع حدوثها في البلدان العربية في خلال العشرين عاما القادمة وما بعدها، ولذا ـ يجب من الآن ـ العمل علي تلافي هذه الكارثة وذلك بالعمل علي إنشاء محطات نووية لاستخدامها في تحلية مياه البحار، وذلك لزيادة مصادر المياه في تلك الدول.

 

 

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