Uranium Exploration إستكشاف اليورانيوم

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 The Use of Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry by M.I.M. Exploration—A Case Study From the Mount Isa Inlier, North West Queensland, Australia

Jayawardhana, P.M.[1],and Sheard, S.N.[1]

1. M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd.

 ABSTRACT  

This paper describes how airborne radiometrics has been used by M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd. (MIMEX) to aid mineral exploration. The case study for this paper focuses on the Mount Isa airborne survey undertaken from 1990–92. During this survey both radiometrics and magnetics were recorded over 639 170 line kilometres. Due to the perceived value of the radiometric data, stringent calibration procedures, including the creation of a test range, were adopted. In addition to the newly flown areas, agreements were entered into to acquire existing data (76 760 line kilometres) from other companies. These were reprocessed and stitched in to give an overall ‘seamless join’ to images. The total area covered by the Mount Isa airborne survey was 1 513 000 km 2. Over the last five years MIMEX has undertaken a number of projects and generated a number of products to maximise the in-house use of radiometrics for mineral exploration. This paper highlights these products, techniques, and results based on radiometric signatures of major mines in the Mount Isa Inlier; radioelement contour maps; geomagnetic/radiometric interpretation maps; lithological mapping; regolith mapping; geochemical sampling; and spatial modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Due to the recent introduction of GIS technology and better techniques for handling MIMEX’s high quality digital data, there has been a revived interest in making more use of image data sets. The integration of raster and vector data sets for both spectral and spatial modelling has highlighted the vast potential that lies ahead.

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* يشتمل هذا الملف علي صفات الأمان الخاصة باختيار المحطات النووية

* الملف محمل بالكامل ضمن هذا الموقع وهو للاستخدام غير التجاري

*No for commercial use

 

Safety criteria for siting a

nuclear power plant

 S T U K • S Ä T E I L Y T U R V A K E S K U S • S T R Å L S Ä K E R H E T S C E N T R A L E N 

R A D I A T I O N  A N D  N U C L E A R  S A F E T Y  A U T H O R I T Y

 

Contents:

1 General 3

2 Plant site and surroundings 4

3 Safety factors affecting site selection 5

3.1 External events affecting safety 5

3.2 Radioactive releases 5

4 Regulatory control by the Radiation and Nuclear

Safety Authority 6

4.1 EIA procedure 6

4.2 Decision in principle 6

4.3 Construction licence and operating licence 6

5 References 7

 

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* هذا الملف يمثل عرض عن اختيار مواقع المفاعلات النووية بالصين

* هذا الملف للاستخدام الغير تجاري

* For non commercial uses

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 Metallogenic Condition and Regularity of Interlayered Oxidation Zone-type Sandstone Uranium Deposit in Suthwestern Part of Turpan-Hami Basin, Northwestern China

 

(Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, 100029)

ABSTRACT

Regional geological surveying and drilling evaluation in recent years show that there are very large potential resources of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. According to the characteristics of tectonic evolution and sedimentary cover of the basin, the evolution stages and types of the basin are divided, and the favorable development stages for the ore-bearing formation and the formation of uranium deposits in the evolution process are identified. The metallogenic conditions of uranium deposits are deeply discussed from four aspects: basic tectonics, paleoclimate evolution, hydrogeology and uranium source of the region. All these have laid an important foundation for accurate prediction and evaluation of uranium resources in this region. The research indicates that the uranium metallogeny is a process of long-term, multi-stage and pulsation. The authors try to ascertain the role of organic matter in concentrating uranium .The organic matter is of humic type in sandstone host-rock in the studied area, whose original mother material mainly belongs to terrestrial high plant. The maturity of the organic matter is very low, being in low-grade stage of thermal evolution. Correlation analysis and separation experiments show that uranium concentration is closely related with the organic matter, and the organic matter in uranium ore is mainly in the form of humic acid adsorption and humate. For this  leason the total organic carbon content is often increased in the geochemical redox zone in epigenetic sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is suggested that the north of China is of great potential for sandstone-type uranium resources.

XIANG Weidong CHEN Zhaobo CHEN Zuyi YIN Jinshuang
(In Chinese)

 

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SUMMARY

This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cogniscance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materialis e.

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أهمية البرامج النووية للدول العربية

* المقال محمل بالكامل ضمن جريدة اقتصاد الغد، العدد الثامن عشر بتاريخ الأحد  24 أغسطس 2008

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Not for commercial use

 يشتمل هذا الملف علي تغير تكاليف إنشاء المحطات النـــــــووية منذ عام 1974 ، وذلك بتفاصيلها مما يجعل القارئ علي دراية تامة بهذا الموضوع الذي يشغل بال العديد من الدول العربية

COSTS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS — WHAT WENT WRONG?

No nuclear power plants in the United States ordered since 1974 will be completed, and many dozens of partially constructed plants have been abandoned. What cut off the growth of nuclear power so suddenly and so completely? The direct cause is not fear of reactor accidents, or of radioactive materials released into the environment, or of radioactive waste. It is rather that costs have escalated wildly, making nuclear plants too expensive to build. State commissions that regulate them require that utilities provide electric power to their customers at the lowest possible price. In the early 1970s this goal was achieved through the use of nuclear power plants. However, at the cost of recently completed plants, analyses indicate that it is cheaper to generate electricity by burning coal. Here we will attempt to understand how this switch occurred. It will serve as background for the next chapter, which presents the solution to these problems.

Several large nuclear power plants were completed in the early 1970s at a typical cost of $170 million, whereas plants of the same size completed in 1983 cost an average of $1.7 billion, a 10-fold increase. Some plants completed in the late 1980s have cost as much as $5 billion, 30 times what they cost 15 years earlier. Inflation, of course, has played a role, but the consumer price index increased only by a factor of 2.2 between 1973 and 1983, and by just 18% from 1983 to 1988. What caused the remaining large increase? Ask the opponents of nuclear power and they will recite a succession of horror stories, many of them true, about mistakes, inefficiency, sloppiness, and ineptitude. They will create the impression that people who build nuclear plants are a bunch of bungling incompetents. The only thing they won't explain is how these same "bungling incompetents" managed to build nuclear power plants so efficiently, so rapidly, and so inexpensively in the early 1970s.

For example, Commonwealth Edison, the utility serving the Chicago area, completed its Dresden nuclear plants in 1970-71 for $146/kW, its Quad Cities plants in 1973 for $164/kW, and its Zion plants in 1973-74 for $280/kW. But its LaSalle nuclear plants completed in 1982-84 cost $1,160/kW, and its Byron and Braidwood plants completed in 1985-87 cost $1880/kW — a 13-fold increase over the 17-year period. Northeast Utilities completed its Millstone 1,2, and 3 nuclear plants, respectively, for $153/kW in 1971, $487/kW in 1975, and $3,326/kW in 1986, a 22-fold increase in 15 years. Duke Power, widely considered to be one of the most efficient utilities in the nation in handling nuclear technology, finished construction on its Oconee plants in 1973-74 for $181/kW, on its McGuire plants in 1981-84 for $848/kW, and on its Catauba plants in 1985-87 for $1,703/kW, a nearly 10-fold increase in 14 years. Philadelphia Electric Company completed its two Peach Bottom plants in 1974 at an average cost of $382 million, but the second of its two Limerick plants, completed in 1988, cost $2.9 billion — 7.6 times as much. A long list of such price escalations could be quoted, and there are no exceptions. Clearly, something other than incompetence is involved. Let's try to understand what went wrong.

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 The Use of Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry by M.I.M. Exploration—A Case Study From the Mount Isa Inlier, North West Queensland, Australia

 Jayawardhana, P.M. [1],and Sheard, S.N.[1]

1. M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd.

 

ABSTRACT

This paper describes how airborne radiometrics has been used by M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd. (MIMEX) to aid mineral exploration. The case study for this paper focuses on the Mount Isa airborne survey undertaken from 1990–92. During this survey both radiometrics and magnetics were recorded over 639 170 line kilometres. Due to the perceived value of the radiometric data, stringent calibration procedures, including the creation of a test range, were adopted. In addition to the newly flown areas, agreements were entered into to acquire existing data (76 760 line kilometres) from other companies. These were reprocessed and stitched in to give an overall ‘seamless join to images. The total area covered by the Mount Isa airborne survey was 1 513 000 km

Over the last five years MIMEX has undertaken a number of projects and generated a number of products to maximise the in-house use of radiometrics for mineral exploration. This paper highlights these products, techniques, and results based on radiometric signatures of major mines in the Mount Isa Inlier; radioelement contour maps; geomagnetic/radiometric interpretation maps; lithological mapping; regolith mapping; geochemical sampling; and spatial modelling using geographical information systems (GIS).

Due to the recent introduction of GIS technology and better techniques for handling MIMEX’s high quality digital data, there has been a revived interest in making more use of image data sets. The integration of raster and vector data sets for both spectral and spatial modelling has highlighted the vast potential that lies ahead.

* For non commercial uses

البحث محمل في هذا الملف

 

 

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Reactor Types

1.Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR)

PWRs use nuclear-fission to heat water under pressure within the reactor. This water is then circulated through a heat exchanger (called a "steam generator") where steam is produced to drive an electric generator. The water used as a coolant in the reactor and the water used to provide steam to the electric turbines exists in separate closed loops that involve no substantial discharges to the environment. Of the 104 fully licensed reactors in the United States, 69 are PWRs.

 www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors

/pwr.html

 

2.Boiling Water Reactors (BWR)

The remaining 35 operable reactors in the United States are BWRs.  BWRs allow fission-based heat from the reactor core to boil the reactor’s coolant water into the steam that is used to generate electricity. General Electric built all boiling water reactors now operational in the United States. Areva NP and Westinghouse BNFL have each designed BWRs.www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_

reactors/bwr.html

 

3.Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR)

PHWRs have been promoted primarily in Canada and India, with additional commercial reactors operating in South Korea, China, Romania, Pakistan, and Argentina. Canadian-designed PHWRs are often called "CANDU" reactors. Siemens, ABB (now part of Westinghouse), and Indian firms have also built commercial PHWR reactors. Heavy water reactors now in commercial operation use heavy water as moderators and coolants.  The Canadian firm, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), has also recently proposed a modified PHWR (the ACR series) which would only use heavy water as a moderator.  Light water would cool these reactors. No successful effort has been made to license commercial PHWRs in the United States. PHWRs have been popular in several countries because they use less expensive natural (not enriched) uranium fuels and can be built and operated at competitive costs. The continuous refueling process used in PHWRs has raised some proliferation concerns because it is difficult for international inspectors to monitor.  Additionally, the relatively high Pu-239 content of PHWR spent fuel has also raised proliferation concerns.  The importance of these claims is challenged by their manufacturers.  PHWRs, like most reactors, can use fuels other than uranium and the ACR series of reactors is intended to use slightly enriched fuels.  Particular interest has been shown in India in thorium-based fuel cycles.

 http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_

reactors/china/candu.html

 

4.High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR):

HTGRs are distinguished from other gas-cooled reactors by the higher temperatures attained within the reactor. Such higher temperatures might permit the reactor to be used as an industrial heat source in addition to generating electricity.  Among the future uses for which HTGRs are being considered is the commercial generation of hydrogen from water.  In some cases, HTGR turbines run directly by the gas that is used as a coolant.  In other cases, steam or alternative hot gases such as nitrogen are produced in a heat exchanger to run the power generators.  Recent proposals have favored helium as the gas used as an HTGR coolant.  The most famous U.S. HTGR example was the Fort Saint Vrain reactor that operated between 1974 and 1989. Other HTGRs have operated elsewhere, notably in Germany. Small research HTGR prototypes presently exist in Japan and China. Commercial HTGR designs are now promoted in China, South Africa, the United States, the Netherlands, and France though none of these is yet commercially marketed.  The proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) in the U.S. will most likely be a helium-based HTGR, if it is funded to completion.

http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/designs/mhtgr/mhtgr.

GIF

5.Sodium-cooled reactors reactors

Sodium-cooled reactors are included on this list primarily because of proposals to build a Toshiba 4S reactor in Alaska. Sodium-cooled reactors use the molten (liquid) metal sodium as a coolant to transfer reactor generated heat to an electricity generation unit.  Sodium-cooled reactors are often associated with “fast breeder reactors (FBRs)” though this is technically not the case in the 4S design.

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دراسات جيولوجية مقترحة  لتقليل مخاطر الزلازل علي موقع مفاعل القوي بمنطقة الضبعة، الساحل الشمالي، مصر

 

هذه ترجمة لعنوان البحث المنشور عام 1995 من إعداد عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان

البحث تم تحميله بالكامل علي الموقع

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هذا التقرير غاية في الأهمية لجميع العاملين في مجال استكشاف وتعدين واستخلاص اليورانيوم حيث يوجد به فصول تفصيلية لمناقشة تلك الموضوعات كما يلي (التقرير محمل بالكامل في هذا الموقع بغرض الثقافة النووية وليس لأي أغراض تجارية):

 

1. INTRODUCTION 

2. HISTORY OF URANIUM MINING

3. CLASSIFICATION OF DEPOSITS.

3.1. Definition and examples 

3.1.1. Unconformity-related ...

3.1.2. Sandstone

3.1.3. Quartz-pebble conglomerate 

3.1.4. Veins 

3.1.5. Breccia complex 

3.1.6. Intrusive 

3.1.7. Phosphorite 

3.1.8. Collapse breccia pipe 

3.1.9.Volcanic

3. Surficial.9

3.1.11. Metasomatite 

3.1.12.Metamorphic

3.1.13. Lignite.

3.1.14.  Blackshale

3.2. The exploitable deposits 

4. PARAMETERS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN ASSESSING A

URANIUM ORE RESOURCE

4.1.Location

4.2. Shape 

4.3. Size 

4.4. Depth 

4.5. Orientation

4.6. Geotectonics 

4.7. Mineralogy 

4.8. Hydrology

4.9. Boundary conditions ...............................................................................................................13

5. PROJECT IMPACT AND APPROVAL.

5.1. Project proposal

5.2. EIS guidelines

5.3. EIS report.. EIS approval process

MINING.............................................................................................................................................16

6.1. Benefits greater than liabilities 

6.2. ALARA .

6.3. Mining methods

6.3.1. Open pit 

6.3.2. Underground

6.3.3. In situ leaching (ISL)

6.4. Influence on mining methods

6.4.1. Social and legal (regulatory) .

6.4.2. Resource recovery 

 

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* يشتمل هذا الملف علي البحوث التي ألقيت بمؤتمر الوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية الذي عقد في فينا في أكتوبر 2000

* الغرض من ذلك إعطاء الفرصة لشباب الباحثين للإطلاع علي البحوث في هذا المجال الهام، وخاصة هؤلاء الذين لا تتاح لهم فرصة للمشاركة في تلك المؤتمرات الدولية 

*بحوث المؤتمر محملة بالكامل ضمن هذا الملف

* ليست للإستخدام التجاري ولكنها لنشر الثقافة النووية

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عن جريدة المصري اليوم:

أعلن الدكتور حسن يونس، وزير الكهرباء والطاقة، عن اختيار موقع النجيلة، جنوب محافظة مرسى مطروح، لاستكمال البرنامج النووى بعد إنشاء ٤ مفاعلات نووية بـ«الضبعة»، مؤكداً أن «النجيلة» يعد الموقع الأكثر صلاحية لاستكمال البرنامج النووى المصرى.

وقال يونس، فى بيان صحفى أمس، إن هيئة المحطات النووية انتهت من إعداد الدراسات والوثائق لاستخراج «إذن قبول» لإنشاء أول محطة نووية مصرية بالضبعة، منوها بأن مركز الأمان النووى - الجهة المانحة لإذن القبول والتراخيص - قدم عدة ملاحظات يتم الرد عليها.

واستعرض يونس خلال اجتماعه أمس مع مجلس إدارة هيئة المحطات النووية تقريراً حول الخطوات التى تتخذها الهيئة لتفعيل قرار الرئيس مبارك ببدء تنفيذ البرنامج النووى.

وحول المشاركة المحلية فى بناء المفاعل المصرى، ذكر الوزير، أنه تم إعداد حصر للجهات التى يمكن أن تشارك فى تعظيم المكون المحلى، وأنه من المنتظر عقد ورشة عمل لهذه الجهات لتعريفها بمعايير ومتطلبات الجودة للعمل بالمشروعات النووية.

وتضمن التقرير، الذى استعرضه وزير الكهرباء، أن هيئة المحطات النووية قامت بإعداد المستندات والوثائق الخاصة باستخراج إذن قبول الموقع لإنشاء المحطة النووية، وفقاً لمتطلبات المركز القومى للأمان النووى والوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية، مشيراً إلى تسليم المستندات إلى هيئة الطاقة الذرية، لافتا إلى أن مركز الأمان النووى قدم عدة ملاحظات تم استيفاؤها، ويقوم المركز بدراستها لإصدار إذن قبول الموقع.

وأوضح التقرير إجراء مسح شامل لسوق المفاعلات المتاحة، ودراسة السمات الرئيسية والخصائص الفنية لـ ١٤ نوعاً من المفاعلات المبردة بالماء العادى والثقيل.

ونوّه إلى تقديم الشركات الروسية والفرنسية والأمريكية والكندية والكورية واليابانية، وهى المصنـّعة والمصدرة لتلك المفاعلات، عروضاً بالقاهرة خلال يوليو وأغسطس الماضيين، حول خصائص تلك المفاعلات، ومن المنتظر أن تقوم الشركة الصينية بتقديم عرضها خلال هذا الشهر.

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NUCLEAR POWER  PLANT SITE SELECTION 

 

 

ABDELATY B. SALMAN 

Ex Ex-Chairman Chairman

Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, Egypt

 

 

I. Introduction

The aim of this article is to present the The aim of this article is to present the requirements and characteristics for the requirements and characteristics for the nuclear power plant site selection. nuclear power plant site selection.

It will focus on the treatments of the main It will focus on the treatments of the main geologic and tectonic features and the geologic and tectonic features and the nature of the site. nature of the site.

Sitting factors and criteria are important in Sitting factors and criteria are important in assuring that radiological doses from assuring that radiological doses from normal operation and postulated accidents normal operation and postulated accidents will be acceptably low. will be acceptably low.

المحاضرة محملة ضمن هوقعي هذا

 

 

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The Second Gulf Conference and Exhibition on ‘Environment and Sustainability’

16-19/February, 2009 - Kuwait

Role of the Nuclear Programs in the Sustainable Development and the Environment Preservation in the Arabian Countries

Salman, A.B.

Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O.Box: 530 El Maadi, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract

The nuclear programs in the Arabian countries should be taken seriously and need remarkable efforts to be able to share in the countries sustainable development projects. The important first step is the understanding of the nuclear fuel cycle and its demands. Where to explore and find reasonable uranium resources and how to extract uranium from them. It is known that the Arabian countries have lot of oil and gasses, but these are considered as fossil resources that will be diminish with few tens of years.

Therefore, the utilization and need for the nuclear energy will be essential. It should be noted that the importance of the water issue in the Arab countries is well known "as the situation faced by the countries of the Middle East and North Africa is very critical". So, one of the main demands to nuclear programs is desalination of see water to overcome the water shortage problems.

In addition, the development projects are expanded year after year in our Arabian countries and the need for more energy is essential for the sustainable development of the ongoing and future projects.

The nuclear programs play an important role in the environment preservation where no CO2, SO2 and NO2 gases emitted. Radiation monitoring is essential for checking the land, soil, air, water and indoors radiometric pollutions. Therefore, the construction of baseline radiometric maps is of fatal importance for the Arabian countries. These maps can be used as historical record for watching any radiological hazards at any part of the country.

للحصول علي البحث كاملا يرجي الاتصال بي:

[email protected]

 

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Egypt invites tenders for nuclear power plant

From:

Zaf Coelho <[email protected]>

 

To:

[email protected]

 

 

 

28-29 September 2010, Grand Hyatt Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

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Egypt invites tenders for nuclear power plant

 

Dear Abdelaty Salman

 Egypt plans to start an international bidding process this year for its first nuclear energy plant, Electricity and Energy Minister Hassan Younes told state-owned al-Ahram newspaper.

The Arab world's most populous country is aiming to shift away from oil and gas to other sources and has said it wants to build four nuclear power plants by 2025, with the first to start operating in 2019. Officials hope the new nuclear programme will add capacity of up to 4,000 megawatts by 2025.


"Egypt's nuclear project is progressing steadily and we expect to start the tender before the end of this year," Younes told the daily newspaper in an interview published last Saturday. The ministry has invited several firms for consultancy and project briefings, such as the French nuclear reactor maker Areva, engineering group Alstom and Westinghouse Electric Co, he added.

 The government was also looking to Korean and Japanese firms. In June, Russia's atomic energy corporation Rosatom briefed Egyptian energy officials on Russian nuclear power plant technology and design. Last year, Egypt signed a deal with Australia's WorleyParsons for a nuclear power consultancy. The firm was due to begin looking into potential locations for the plant, Egypt's first, including updating studies on the Dabaa site on the Mediterranean coast, where Egypt planned to build a power station in the 1980s. Younes said the studies had concluded that Dabaa was the most suitable location.


"The project is moving ahead on time. Internationally, it takes 8 to 10 years for such projects to bear fruit in developing countries and 12 to 15 in countries where nuclear projects are being set up for the first time," he added.


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absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر [email protected]

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نشرت فى 13 أغسطس 2010 بواسطة absalman

أهمية البرامج النووية للدول العربية

مقدمة

    من المعروف أن عددا" كبيرا" من الدول العربية لديها برامج وأنشطة في المجالات النووية، ولكنها تختلف من بلد إلي آخر في الشكل والمضمون، ولكن معظمها في أغلب الأحيان لا تتعدي مقدمة لدورة الوقود النووي، أو بعض الاستخدامات والتطبيقات السلمية للنظائر المشعة في الطب والصناعة والزراعة والإنتاج الحيواني وتشعيع بعض المواد الغذائية لزيادة فترة مقاومتها للتلف.

     ومن الجدير بالذكر أن خامات اليورانيوم وهي التي تعتبر المصدر الرئيسي لليورانيوم اللازم لدورة الوقود النووي لم يتم إثبات تواجدها في الكثير من الدول العربية بطريقة يمكن استغلالها اقتصاديا، كذلك لم يقدر احتياطي الخام لها طبقا لمعايير الوكالة الدولية إلا في الجزائر فقط، ومعظم التقديرات لتلك الاحتياطيات في البلاد العربية تقع تحت نوع الخامات المحتملة أو التنبئية ( أي أنها تقديرات تقريبية جدا"). لذلك يري الكاتب أنه لابد أن يكون لكل دولة عربية برنامج نووي واضح المعالم ـ للاستخدامات السلمية ـ مع التركيز علي عمليات الاستكشاف وتقييم خامات اليورانيوم والعمل علي توفيرها حيث أنه لا يمكن بدأ أي برنامج نووي متكامل بدون وجود خامات اليورانيوم، كذلك هناك صعوبات بالغة في الحصول علي اليورانيوم في الدول المنتجة.

 

 

1- دور البرامج النووية في توفير المياه

 

        تعتبر مشكلة المياه من أهم الموضوعات التي يجب أن نوليها أهمية قصوي، بل لابد من أن تضعها الدول العربية في أولوياتها حيث أن نقصها علي المدي القريب وندرتها علي المدي البعيد يهدد فعلا المشروعات التنموية في العالم العربي. ويري الكاتب أنه يجب البدا من الآن في التخطيط لإنشاء محطات نووية لتحلية المياه.

        فإذا  استعرضنا ما ورد في شبكة المعلومات الدولية عن العالم العربي نجد أنه يتكون من 22 دولة، تمتد من الخليج العربي شرقا حتى المحيط الأطلنطي غربا، وعدد سكانها حوالي 300 مليون نسمة. وتجدر الإشارة إلي أن معدل النمو السكاني  في تلك المنطقة 2,7 %. وطبقا لتقرير عام 2000 والخاص بالتنمية البشرية، نجد أن معدل النمو الاقتصادي في تلك الدول لا تتمشي مع معد\ل النمو السكاني وأن الركيزة الأساسية لدفع عجلة التطور والتنمية هي الطاقة والمياه. ولمعرفة أهمية مدي المياه للدول العربية فإننا نجد أن استخدامات المياه في الزراعة تحتل أعلي نسبة، ثم يلي ذلك الاستخدامـات اليوميـــة والصناعية ( جدول 1)، وهذا يوضح مدي خطورة نقص المياه وتهديده لبرامج التنمية في العالم العربي.

 

جدول 1 : نسبة استخدامات المياه في بعض الدول العربية


الدولة

الاستخدام اليومي

الاستخدام الصناعي

الاستخدام الزراعي

مصر

7

5

88

المملكة العربيةالسعودية

45

8

47

مراكش

6

3

92

الجزائر

22

4

74

تونس

13

7

80

ليبيا

15

10

75

السودان

1

-

99

جيويوتي

28

21

51

الصومال

3

-

97

اليمن

5

2

93

عمان

3

3

94

الامارات العربية

11

9

80

الكويت

64

32

4

العراق

3

5

92

الأردن

29

6

65

سوريا

7

10

83

لبنان

11

4

85

العالم

8

23

69


ويتضح من الجدول1 أن أعلي نسبة من كمية المياه في الدول العربية تستخدم في الأغراض الزراعية وتتدني نسبة المياه المستعملة في الاستخدامات اليومية والصناعية.


وإذا نظرنا من قريب إلي موضوع المصادر المائية‘ فإنه يتضح أن ندرة المياه والنمو السكاني يمثل لب المشكلة في عمليات تنمية المناطق الشبه قارية والتي تشمل الدول العربية. إن الأهمية الأساسية للمياه للمعيشة والتقدم الحضاري توضح أن مشكلة ندرة المياه والتغلب عليها تمثل المعركة الرئيسية للوصل إلي مستوي حياة أفضل في المناطق الفقيرة المشتملة علي تعداد كبير من السكان.


وتجدر الإشارة إلي أن أهمية موضوع المياه في الدول العربية معروف جيدا" حيث أن الوضع الذي يواجه بلدان الشرق الأوسط وشمال إفريقيا هو حرج للغاية، فمثلا يوجد احدي عشرة دولة من بين العشرين دولة الموجودة في هذه المنطقة تستخدم حاليا أكثر من نصف مصادر المياه بها. وأن ليبيا ودول الجزيرة العربية عدا عمان تستخدم 100% من مصادر المياه بها، وهم يعتمدون علي تحلية مياه البحر المكلفة أو السحب من الـ Fossil Water  مع توقع زيادة عدد السكان بطريقة مفزعة.


ولمعرفة مدي خطورة الموضوع مستقبلا سوف نستعرض ما سوف يكون الوضع عليه عام 2025 بناءا" علي دراسات حديثة لتعداد السكان وتقديرات مصادر المياه المتجددة، فمثلا نجد أن لبنان ستواجه ضغطا بالنسبة للمياه Water Stress  حيث أنه سيصل نصيب كل 600 –   1000 فرد 1 مليون متر مكعب ( أي وحدة FU = 1 مليون متر مكعب مياه).

أما مصر والمغرب وسوريا سوف يحدث بها ندرة للمياه Water Scarcity حيث سيصل نصيب كل 1000 إلي 2000 فرد علي واحد مليون متر مكعب مياه. أما الجزائر، البحرين، جيوبوتي الأردن، الكويت، ليبيا، عمان، قطر، السعودية، الصومال، وتونس ودولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة واليمن سوف تقابل مانع مائي Water barrier قبل عام 2025 حيث يوزع واحد مليون متر مكعب ماء علي أكثر من 2000 فرد.

 ويتضح مما تقدم أن هناك مشكلة طاحنة بالنسبة لنقص المياه يتوقع حدوثها في البلدان العربية في خلال العشرين عاما القادمة وما بعدها، ولذا ـ يجب من الآن ـ العمل علي تلافي هذه الكارثة وذلك بالعمل علي إنشاء محطات نووية لاستخدامها في تحلية مياه البحار، وذلك لزيادة مصادر المياه في تلك الدول.

 

 

absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر [email protected]

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دكتور: عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان

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