Also known as Bacillary white diarrhoea, Pullorum
Salmonellosis pullorum (pullorum, Bacillary white diarrhea) occurs worldwide in all poultry species and ages. It is a non-motile gram-negative bacterium Salmonella pullorum.
- Causes of Salmonellosis pullorum
- Effects of Salmonellosis pullorum
- Diagnosis of Salmonellosis pullorum
- Treatment & Control of Salmonellosis pullorum
All species of bird of all ages are susceptible to this acute to chronic disease (acute and chronic in young birds in flocks older). The agent involved in the aetiology of the disease, Salmonella pullorum, which is a non-motile, non-spore forming gram-negative capsule or rod-shaped bacteria.
Mode of transmission
Spread vertically through egg (transovarian) or on egg (by faecal contamination) or by feed and water contamination, contamination incubators, exploding eggs, and bird to bird (horizontal) transmission.
It is species specific (occurs only in birds)
It is a notifiable disease. It has been eradicated from most commercial flocks, but is still common in backyard flocks and commercial flocks in third world countries. A few isolated outbreaks of pullorum have occasionally occurred in breeder and broiler parent stocks.
Young birds have pasted a guy. White diarrhea, huddling, lame ness, Somnolence (sleepy), laboured breathing and blindness can occur.
Mortality peaks at 7.10 days with up to 100% mortality and / or morbidity and / or morbidity.
Adults are usually infected subclinically and a drop in egg production, fertility or hatch ability may occur. Depression, anorexia (will eat), diarrhea and dehydration are seen occasionally.
Post mortem lesions
Young birds have a red-streaked liver, enlarged spleen and gray nodules in the peritoneum.
White caecal plug, misshapen yolk and omphalitis (swollen belly) can occur. White areas on gizzard, liver, heart, lungs, kidneys filled urat swollen joints may be seen.
Adults have misshapen Ovaries, testicular abscesses or may be atrophic, swollen joints, nodular myocarditis (inflammation of the cardiac muscle) or pericarditis (inflammation of the sac around the heart).
There is no definitive diagnosis based on signs or lesion. Organism should be cultured on Salmonella-Shigella, brilliant green, MacConkey's or Triple sugar iron agar.
It is a notifiable disease. It Simulates colibaccillosis and paratyphoid.
Testing of breeder flocks aggulatination or serum by enzyme linked immuneosorbent assay (ELISA). Have a good rodent control program in place, as rodents often are carriers of the bacteria.
Spraying and / or eggs or fumigation with formaldehyde. Place paraformaldehyde pellets in nests. Spray house with eggs in 2.5% hydrogen peroxide and 1% quaternary ammonia. Pellet feed to kill bacteria, more difficult to heat inactive bacteria in feed high in energy (5% fat), NF-180 ® (0.011%) (Neomycin 35g / t). Pelleting during heating process kills bacteria. National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) hatcheries monitors for Salmonella in the U.S..
Most countries have a national program for the control of Salmonella pullorum and feed irradiation to kill bacteria.
For young birds only if allowed by local legislation. In many countries, destruction is obligatory. Antibody positive breeders are destroyed.
NF-180 ® Furazolidone * (feed) (0055%), Sulfonamide (0.5) in starter mash, 50-100 g / t. (Furox ®), * Furacin water, Neomycin * 70-140 g / t and sulfa drugs in water or young birds will treat the signs.
* Removed from drugs approved by FDA and in most European countries.