د/ أحمد عبد الوهاب برانيه

أستاذ إقتصاد وتنمية الموارد السمكية

  

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

In Arab Countries of Mediterranean Sea

  

BY

DR. AHMED BARRANIA

INSTITUTE OF NATIONAL PLANNING

   

CAIRO, JUNE 2010

  

 STATE OF THE FISHERIES

     The fisheries of the region are dominated by small-scale, artisanal fisheries with over 80 percent of the landings originating from these fisheries. While industrial-scale fisheries are important in countries such as morocco

 

    Given that most of the fisheries of the region are based on small-scale artisanal fisheries rather than industrial fisheries, the social and microeconomic implications of their management will be careful.

 

        The introduction of effective, modern management to artisanal fisheries in many countries face many challenges. The remoteness of locations, minimal enforcement and shortage of financial and administrative resources make introducing most fishery management tools difficult

 

       Most marine resources exploitation of the region takes place along the coast. This area is fragile and threaded by the pressure of a large number of fishing vessels targeting demersals and small and large pelagic many of which are of shared nature 

        Fish resources face increasing pressure, both from fisheries and from external factors such as pollution and climate change 

        Many reports point out that most of the fish stocks in the countries of the region are either in a situation of maximum exploitation or are already in an advanced state of over exploitation, due mostly to disproportionate increase in the fishing effort. This situation is mainly caused by fishing activities being confined to the coastal areas, where the fishing effort surpasses the stock replacement capacity. As consequence, the fishing yields do not reach the profitability levels desirable for most of the active fishing units in the region 

      The exact status of many stocks is not certain because of the lack of comprehensive stock assessment research in the region  

      A critical issue for the region in assessing the status of marine fish stocks is the lack of primary data and the lack of analyses upon which to base meaningful stock assessments. Many countries have either no information or old information on the status of fish stocks in their areas upon which to base management plans, while others have more recent analyses, although such analyses are usually made difficult because of the shared nature of the stocks in question. Of particular concern is the degradation, rather than improvement, in the information available upon to which to base stock assessments in some countries. 

     The pressure on exploited stocks is further aggravated by widespread illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing by both foreign as well as national vessels. Fisheries enforcement, particularly of local artisanal fisheries in the region is weak 

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

      There are several regulatory instruments through which the countries in the region try to regulate fishing efforts in order to reach its management objectives. They include the imposition of catch limit or quota – total allowable catch as in the case of blue fine tuna-, restriction on the use of certain types of gears – either to reduce total catch or catch the catch of certain species-, the setting of minimum size limits – to avoid impacts on recruitment  and growth- , imposition of closed season- to protect the stock during vital period of their life cycle-, restricting fishing in certain areas- usually to protect juvenile or spawning fish-,taxing resources in order to limit entry and effort I a fishery

     Countries within the region manage marine fisheries within their territorial waters at a national level, despite the obvious shared nature of many stocks. In undertaking such management, the extensive artisanal fisheries of the region are generally managed to a lesser extent than the industrial fisheries, which often have limited entry provisions and other management conditions applied to them. Limited entry provisions and the control of fishing capacity within the artisanal sector is rare in the region

        The tools used for managing marine fisheries at the national level vary from one country to the next, although the development-orientated policies of many countries generally result in tools that encourage exploitation and expansion of the sector (particularly the artisanal sector at early stages of development) rather than imposing restrictions on their activities. Such encouragement includes the widespread use of direct and indirect subsidies, particularly in those richer countries that can afford an extensive subsidization scheme·        Much of the basic fisheries legislation is relatively old it is the newer legislation, such as that in Djibouti. In most countries with older legislation, the legislation is often seen as a basis for the administration of fisheries rather than a policy framework for the long-term management of the fisheries sector. . As an administrative framework, older legislation can, and is, periodically modified to update administrative requirements and procedures but the basic philosophy and policy framework under which fisheries are managed are not changed by such modifications 

        The effectiveness of enforcement of management regulations in the region is a major issue and is generally very weak. As a result, illegal, unrecorded, unregulated iuu fishing is common in many countries such Egypt

        Enforcement is most often performed by agencies other than the fisheries management agency and usually by national coast guards, police or the navy. Enforcement of fisheries regulations is therefore most usually undertaken as part of other marine patrol duties and, as a result, fisheries are not often seen as a focus of attention

       There is no regional management of any stock although many stocks are undoubtedly shared between countries in the region. The General Fishery Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) was established in 1949 and brings together the countries of the Mediterranean Sea .However, to date; GFCM has not implemented effective regional management actions

        Environmental legislation generally impinges only marginally on fisheries legislation and, when it does, it is for specific purposes or areas such as marine parks. Formal coordination between environmental and fisheries agencies is not common, although in many countries ad hoc or permanent marine environment committees often include a member from the fisheries management agency  

       RECOMMENDATIONS 

        There is an urgent need not only to upgrade the information base on exploited marine fisheries resources in the region but also to use this information in undertaking assessments of the major fish stocks, on a regional basis if appropriate. Without such information, it is unlikely that the management of marine stocks in the region will improve  

       An important step forward for most of the countries in the region would therefore be to undertake a review of their basic fisheries laws and redraft them as the basis for the management, as well as the administration, of fisheries on a long-term sustainable basis 

       The best mechanism for multilateral cooperation is the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM. 'The GFCM must become an effective regional fisheries organization. It must be able to provide the scientific basis for adopting common fisheries management measures, achieving the best levels of exploitation of marine resources. And ensure a harmonization of fisheries rules 

        Cooperation between the EU and non-EU Mediterranean countries in key fields including stock assessment research, surveillance and governance of the Mediterranean fisheries  

        Fisheries management is foremost about managing people rather than fish. The most important economic contribution to management of fisheries is focusing on incentives i.e., the factors encouraging motivating and inducing behavior of the resources users 

       Economic instruments in some cases such as user charges may provide an appropriate means of ensuring efficient allocation of the resources between competing groups 

drBarrania

د/ أحمد برانية أستاذ اقتصاد وتنمية المواردالسمكية معهد التخطيط القومى

  • Currently 46/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
16 تصويتات / 277 مشاهدة

ساحة النقاش

د/ أحمد عبد الوهاب برانية

drBarrania
أستاذ اقتصاد وتنمية المواردالسمكية معهد التخطيط القومى »

ابحث

تسجيل الدخول

عدد زيارات الموقع

256,357