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الإهتمام بالإدارة والقيادة ، والفكر الإستراتيجي

 

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

Strategy

 

 

      Strategy is considered as a concept that passes around in different fields of sciences ( politics, economic, military, social ….. etc. ) . The word strategy and strategic ( adjective ), they are used widely by the researchers and thinkers in variety of sciences without clear specification to its meaning, or a definition of dimensions and limitations of the concept, which cause sometimes obscurity and confusion intellectual wise . 

  

The origin of strategic concept

      Strategy concept was derived from Greek lexical (strategos), which was derived from two compound words (stratos) and it means (army)  , and (agein)  it means leadership. The use of the compound in ancient Greek language (strategos) was meant a  military commander . From the lexical (strategos) was derived from the word (strategee) which means “ the General science “.

the word “General” at that historical era , was described as a character of three  dimensions .

  

The dimensions of the “ General’s” charter :

1.         The first dimension. The General is a person who behaves steadfast because one of his tasks to select the appropriate way to achieve competitive advantage of some type . The meaning of victory and loss in a battle is related to the General who conducts the battle takes right or wrong decisions, through operating the suitable quantity and quality of materials and resources  in the battle. Therefore, to link between the objective and the General strategic capability in decision making process .

 

2.         The second dimension . The general is a person who acts and know there is another power in warfare theatre , that effects and be             effected in the way in dealing with things and decisions making, therefore, that power makes pressures upon results which the general are looking to achievement .

      the General should perform a certain roles to achieve his Objectives, and these roles exemplify in the following :

  1. How to exercise his role to motivate his troops in battle field to form a harmonized men fighting fiercely ( insistence ) .
  2. How to address the upper echelons to provide hem with troops and  materials.
  3. How to deal with subordinates to accomplish the mission.
  4. How to do military maneuvers according to the theater environment.
  5. How to maneuver to attract others to join in alliance to  affect the battle course for his benefits.
  6. How to negotiate to accomplish the most suitable conditions to achieve peace.

 

3 .     The third dimension.  The General  is a person who is highly sensitive towards time, studies his plans and strategic movements deeply; in order to be carried out in a suitable time .

  

The military concept of strategic terminology

      It is noticeable that the variety of the contemporary usage of the word strategy to include many fields. As it mentioned before: it might be described a site or apart of a country is strategic, also a political or economic decisions might be described as strategic, if it is affect politics or economy in the country, the description strategy may use to call some weapons of decisive impact in a battle, such as  strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT), moreover, a way of thinking or professional studies may described as strategic.

 

      The concept strategy is of military origins, and from historical perspective it is linked to the conduct of war. when the science of warfare appeared, war strategy become as branch of it . The earnest efforts to register the science of war started with Nigola Mikavilly who wrote a book under title of “Art of War”.

 

      The study of strategy dated back to the 18th century ,when the British Henery Loid wrote-in the introduction of his book about the history of seven wars-a number of military theories , in addition to that he established war strategy, and pointed out that strategy in the military field means (the use of armed power by the state to achieve it’s objectives) .

 

The historical development of strategic concept 

      After we know the variety in strategy definitions and concepts in the past and the present; and we observed that strategy was limited in its beginnings in the military field, then it moved gradually to cover the other fields. This is to confirm the meaning of strategic concept pass over developmentary levels through historical extent.

 

1.  Strategy in slavery era. To define strategic concept (B  C ) . it is important to divide that period into tow parts :

a)     primitive societies .They lacked of strategies .Their objectives never gone beyond the personal needs, fighting and primitive weapons, even the fighting manners were very limited to individual .

b)     Ancient eras . At that period of time appeared empires that had the political and military leadership, in addition, they had their own objectives and distinguished manners in fighting which the military history is no longer  preserve their thoughts and sciences .

2.  Strategy in Islamic era . It was distinguished of its clearness and accuracy, this was because of the unity of aims, objectives, principles and beliefs which depended on planning and execution of different levels . Strategic instruments, manners and thoughts at that period were varies, that   confirmed by the Islamic conquests.  

3.  Strategy in the medieval eras . At the beginning the level of the strategic thought was decreased in contrast with the former ones . Complete absence of clear objectives and strategies , objectives were limited to the individual, religious exercises and to preserve/ protect the feudalities security . Activities and fighting styles concentrated  on the complete dependence on knights and their sons .

 

4.  Strategy from 15th century to 18th century . Strategic science and intellectual at that period undergone many changes and decisive development in the history of strategy .They can be shown on the following :

a)     15th century – Mikavilly . Italian philosopher . His strategic intellectuals were considered as a turning point in strategic concept

b)     16th century – Gostaf Adolf king of Swede, he improved the strategic military science and thought; 

c)      17th century – Fredrik the Great  The king of Prussia, he had a big role in the improvement of fighting and strategic systems in the battle field, moreover  army organization .                       

d)     18th century – Napoleon . Emperor of France . He had a big role in improvement of strategic science and thought .  

 

5.   Strategy in 19th century .  Impacts of the industrial revaluation upon strategic thought , so development of weapons which were varied and increased their effects, range and heaviness . Armies gain high capacity in maneuver , and improvement of the fighting manners .

 

6.   Strategy in the world war I . Strategy at that time was very clear, whereas appeared the prominent /clearance strategic objectives such as colonialism and

ethnicity purposes, and expansionist policy. Improvement and variety of armies form and size, specially land, navy and air forces . Emergence of alliance phenomenon . Applied  all fighting techniques in different levels .

 

7.   Strategy in the world war II. Advance extension to the former idea . (Last period) , emergence of mass warfare idea , emergence of national objectives , apply  all level and types of strategy , and Advancement of military formation , capacity, tools and profession .

 

8.   strategy in nuclear era . The use of atomic bomb at the end of world war II had an impact in changing  the balance of science and thought of strategy . Emergence of the new strategic concepts (nuclear deterrence and arms race ) . Nuclear power – India, Pakistan, Iran ... etc

 

9.   Strategy in space era . The outer space added another strategic dimension, because the utilization of space is an important factor in the present time strategies .

 

 Schools of strategic thought

     Western school  It has not a single concept – but, it might be collected some of concepts that came out from this school; the context includes the most essential and inclusive ones .  

1.      Klawzevids . It is the use of engagement for the  sake of warfare objectives.

2.      Moltika . A group of instruments use to a accomplish a certain aim .

3.      British joint training manual 1902. It is a planning art and direction for a campaign . And it is the style which  the commander running after to bring about his enemy to the battle .

4.      Liddle Hart . Is the art , distribution and usage of different military instruments for political goals . 

5.      Andaria Bover . It is the art of utilizing power to reach the political objectives.

6.      American concept 1959. It is the art and science to employ the armed forces for the goals of public polices of the state through putting into action power or threat .

Eastern school 

1.      Lenin. An ideal strategy which guarantees operation delay that allow the moral break down of enemy for an easiest deathblow .

2.      Mau Tis Tung . It is the study of law of the whole warfare situation .

3.      kozolv.  It is certain of military instruments of making policy to gain it’s objectives.

4.      General concept. It is the scientific knowledge system about warfare rules as an armed conflict for the sake of specific class interests .

      As general .  

  

      Today is appeared what is known by the contemporary concept of strategy i.e. the comprehensive national strategy  (( it is the science and art of improvement and optimum utilization of political, economic , military, social , technological and administrational power for the state to attain national aims & objectives of the state )) .

      The essence of contemporary strategy is an art of selection from different theories and available methods that convenient (suitable) to situations face the responsible authorities, thus, to reach the programmed and desired objectives to become true .  

 

      Contemporary strategy ranking in belief, politics and doctrine a position of a appendix, i.e. the doctrine which specify the general and fundamental situation whereas the items related to strategy that   work nature is derived from . Elements of the comprehensive national strategy concept :

1.   Connection of strategy with the community and state security .

2.   Mobilization of the community resources and its arrangement / organization and direction .   

3.   Avoid inactivity i.e. expressing and advancement by changing circumstances, resources, and available options.

 

Strategic concept in business field

      Tregoe and Zimmerman 1980  : ((the strategy is an ideation of the Org.  for what to be in future, but not how the Org.  comes to this situation, and the strategy is the guide frame for the choices that determine nature of the Org.   and its direction, and relation of these choices by field of the productions or services, the markets, the important potentials / capabilities , the growth , the revenues , allocate the Org.  resources  ))

      Tommas-1988 :((the strategy is plans and activities of the Org. , set by guarantees a degree of coincide between the Org.  mission and its objectives. Between that mission and the environment that work in active way higher equality)).

      Mendez Berg 1989 : ((the strategy is the middle power between the Org.  and the environment and compatible manners in collection from the Org. decisions that related by environment, so it uses the Org.  to adapt with its environment collection of decisions that the management adopt them)).

     Gluik and Jawesh-1988  : ((The strategy is a unified, inclusive/comprehensive and completed plan , that links the strategic benefits for the Org.  by the environmental challenges, and that build to confirm realization and the basic objectives for the Org.  during the suitable execution by the Org. )) .

      Bossman and Vatak 1989  : ((the strategy is an instruments to realize goals, it's descript  of the organizational manners to realize the strategic objectives, and it’s by that include to determine the strategic alternatives,  and evaluate that alternatives to realize major objectives of the Org.  )) .  

 

 Borter  one of the competitive strategy pioneers . ((the strategy is a building and establishment defenses against the competitive power, or found a position in industry whereas the power in its weakest form)).

       Any Org.  has its comprehensive competitive strategy it’s mixing of the workable objectives by the Org.  so as to be implemented to realize these objectives . the main factors the organization’s strategy affected by : external environment, internal environment ( resources) , and specific objectives of organization . 

 

  Some Concluding Remarks

     Strategy is a concept that has been borrowed from the military and adapted for business use. In truth, very little adaptation is required.

      Strategy is about means. It is about the attainment of ends, not their specification. The specification of ends is a matter of stating those future conditions and circumstances toward which effort is to be devoted until such time as those ends are obtained.

      Strategy is concerned with how you will achieve your aims, not with what those aims are or ought to be, or how they are established. If strategy has any mean-ing at all, it is only in relation to some aim or end in view.

 

المصدر: 1. B. H. Liddell Hart , Basic Books. Strategy (1967). 2. George Steiner, Free Press. Strategic Planning (1979). 3. Henry Mintzberg , Basic Books. The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning(1994). 4. Kenneth Andrews. Dow-Jones Irwin. The Concept of Corporate Strategy, 2nd Edition (1980). 5. Michael Porter, "What is Strategy?" , Harvard Business Re-view (Nov-Dec 1996). 6. Michael Porter, Competitive Strategy , Harvard Business School Press. (1986). 7. Benjamin Tregoe and John Zimmerman. Simon and Schuster. Top Management Strategy (1980). 8. Michel Robert , McGraw-Hill. Strategy: Pure and Simple (1993). 9. Boseman , Phatake , Strategic Management , John Weiley Inc. USA – 1984 . 10. C. Von Clausewitz , On War , translated and edited by M. Howard and P. Paret , Princeton – 1976 . 11. Charles W. L. Hill & Gareth R. Jones , Strategic Management , 4th. ED. , Houghton Mifflin Company , New York – 1998 . 12. Glueck & Jauch , Strategic Management and Business Policy , McGraw – Hill , 3rd. ED. , New York – 1984 . 13. Charles W. L. Hill & Gareth R. Jones , Strategic Management , 4th. ED. , Houghton Mifflin Company , New York – 1998 . 14. Fred Nickols , Strategy – Definitions and Meanings , 2006 .
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د . علي كردي

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نشرت فى 23 يناير 2012 بواسطة alikordi

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د . علي محمد إبراهيم كردي

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