موضوعات للمهتمين بصناعة الدواجن Topics for poultrymen( Breedrs, Smallholders, Resarchers, Students ) in poultry industry

دجاج التسمين Broilers

edit

 

 

Broiler production

To grow a day old chick to a full grown broiler is a top performance. It is important to manage the growth of broilers in orer to get the best result. By looking at the bird and building an ideal situation for growth, the Vencomatic broiler solutions are designed to give broiler managers the best performance

 

  • Patio
  • The Patio is a unique multi tier broiler concept, which is designed for hatching pre-hatched eggs in the system where the birds are also reared. Each row of the system contains several levels where the young broilers will be housed. The broilers are placed on a manure belt, which also is used to transport them out of the house

  •   
Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 0/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
0 تصويتات / 161 مشاهدة
نشرت فى 2 سبتمبر 2012 بواسطة Khairy4712

 







 

 

In the world of broiler meat production, developments happen quickly. The increase in broiler performance in commercial breeds has been tremendous. This performance is not only established in growth per day, but also in feed conversion, carcass yield, breast meat yield, mortality, leg quality, etc. The modern broiler of today is barely comparable with the bird of 20 or 30 years ago due to very intense and very sophisticated genetic selection

This is nicely demonstrated in a famous experiment in the USA. A group of researchers compared two lines of broilers, one with the genetic characteristics of the broiler lines of 40 years ago, and one with the characteristics of today. They also developed two different feeds, one with the characteristics of 40 years ago, and a modern broiler feed. When the different lines were given the different feeds, it became very clear that the improvement in performance is largely due to the genetic improvement, as the birds of today did well on the feed of 40 years ago, but the birds with the genetic profile of 40 years ago hardly benefited from the modern feed  

From an economical standpoint, it is very clear that a breeding company has no choice than to focus its selection program mainly on broiler traits and to a much lesser extent on breeder traits. As the cost price of a day old chick is only a fraction of the cost price of a full grown broiler, a 10% improvement in broiler traits is worth much more money than a 10% improvement in breeder traits. After all, we are not in this business to produce hatching eggs or day old chicks, but to produce meat

The broiler-breeder paradox

Unfortunately, selecting on one trait has often consequences for other traits that are not necessarily directly associated with the trait that we select on. One clear example is the influence of selecting for growth on reproductive performance. It is often assumed that there is a negative correlation between broiler and breeder traits, sometimes called the broiler-breeder paradox. This paradox states that if the broiler characteristics in a line improve, its reproductive capacity will be impaired

Despite very high genetic growth potential for broiler offspring, most commercial breeder flocks reach 85% peak production or even more.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Although from a biological standpoint this is true, our modern broiler lines paint a different picture. The genetic potential for growth and broiler characteristics has never been as high as now, however it is not uncommon for most commercial broiler breeder flocks to have 85% peak production or more. There are differences between the different breeds, but reaching 85 or even 90% peak of production is a level where 15 years ago producers could only have dreamed of

We must have great respect for the geneticists that work in the different breeding companies, as well as for the research institutes and universities that have contributed to developing the tools that made these progresses possible, because they have been able to overcome the broiler-breeder paradox

Modern management

However, if we take a closer look at the different commercial lines, we see that the genetic improvements have an impact on the management strategies that we have to apply. As broilers are the end product of different lines with different characteristics, each breeding program has to make a choice of which broiler traits are represented in which line. Although in reality all lines are selected on more or less all traits, the focus on which traits should be present in which lines is not equal for all breeds As a high growth potential in a female breeder has a negative effect on reproduction, some breeds focus their broiler traits more on the males than on the females. The result is that egg production in these lines goes very well, but the males with a higher growth potential need stricter management in rearing and production to have satisfying results. As they tend to get overweight more easily, it is more difficult to keep them active and in good condition then when the focus for broiler traits is more on the females If the females are genetically more selected on broiler traits, we see that female management is more difficult but a good fertility is easier in reach, resulting sometimes in flocks with 90% hatch of eggs set for a period of more than 10 weeks. Probably the biggest challenge for geneticists is to keep all the lines in balance with each other, in such a way that in the field the product can cope with all the circumstances that we can apply to them, as the same breed will be used at different places and in different conditions

Rearing strategies

 

The aim on the breeder side is to obtain as many good quality chicks per breeder hen as possible.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Although the broiler growth, and with that the body weights at for instance 42 days of age, have increased dramatically over the last decades, a quick scan of the breeder growth curves especially in rearing shows hardly any change over time. As the requirements for growth and maintenance have not really changed over the years, the amount of feed we have to give to realise the required growth curve has not changed dramatically either, but the amount of feed the bird could eat if it has the choice did increase tremendously This means that the level of restriction that we have to apply on our rearing birds, as a percentage of the amount of feed they would consume when fed ad libitum, is gradually increasing. This increasing relative restriction requires more precise management, for instance to avoid competition and with it creating lack of uniformity

Growing on air

What we often see is that rearing flocks requires hardly any weekly feed increases in the period from 7-8 to 14-15 weeks of age to stay on body weight. It is as if in this period they grow from air. Of course birds do not grow on air, but because of their high eating capacity in the first weeks of life, we easily overfeed them in this period, and then it takes several weeks of hardly any feed increases to get them back on the correct body weight and growth curve    This bears a risk in itself, as too severe feed restriction can result in negative effects such as delayed development at the end of rearing, which requires more feed and (over) stimulation at the beginning of lay


Avoid overfeeding

 

As broilers are the end product of different lines with different characteristics, each breeding program has to make a choice in which broiler traits are represented in which line.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Due to the high growth potential of the birds, it is very easy to overfeed them. Especially just before and during the start of production, as well as towards peak production, overfeeding the flock will result in more formation of breast muscle, as that is where modern breeds are selected on. Although the extra breast muscle by itself doesn’t necessarily have a negative effect on production, it results in a stimulation of sexual hormones, as the hormones that are associated with muscle growth are stimulating sexual hormones

As a result, some birds (especially the birds that are coming in production somewhat later) will start to produce more follicles than their system can handle, resulting in more double yolks, and if it is too severe in egg peritonitis, internal lay, poor peak and more mortality. Too avoid this, care must be taken not to stimulate the flocks too much with feed if the flock is not ready. After all, being selected so intensively for growth has resulted in a bird that exactly knows what to do with feed that it can’t use for egg production

Feed reduction after peak

Too much growth after peak leads to overweight birds and lack of persistency in production and fertility. With continuous selection on growth characteristics in the broilers, proper feed management during and after peak becomes increasingly important, to avoid excessive weight gains later on. Especially the feed reduction at and just after peak is an important tool to avoid overweight later in life, as at peak the birds need to grow much less than in the period coming towards peak But with the high peaks that our modern breeds obtain nowadays, it is difficult for a broiler breeder manager to decide to cut the feed when the birds are still at a very high level of production. This often results in a jump in body weight of 200-300 grams two to three weeks later, and with that higher body weight the birds have more risk of becoming overweight later in life

Accept no mistakes

Modern broiler breeds have a tremendous growth potential, and with it are still able to have a very good production on the breeder level. However, with the selection for broiler characteristics we do put pressure on our breeder lines, and this requires a good understanding of what the parent bird needs, and a strict management to fulfil these needs With this high level of genetic capacity in our lines, we have to accept that no mistakes are permitted to achieve their maximum performance. Continuous adjustment and fine tuning of the management to deal with the continuous improvements in the birds is key

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 0/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
0 تصويتات / 191 مشاهدة

 

Evidence of the development of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria that are pathogenic to humans has mounted over recent decades, and the practice of using sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) in livestock production has been heavily implicated in this resistance

Worldwide, this connection has led to erosion of consumer trust in agricultural practices that rely on this valuable medical resource. Increasingly, legislation is limiting their use. The shift from AGP to alternatives begun in Europe rapidly spread, as exporting countries have had no choice but to comply

A number of alternative feed additives have been investigated. Among the new, tested compounds are acidifiers. These supplements include organic acids and their salts, like diformates. Potassium diformate, for instance, the potassium double-salt of formic acid, rapidly gained formal approval as the first legal alternative for in-feed antibiotics in Europe

Formic acid and its salts are well known to improve productivity, acting against pathogens, which decreases the pressure on the animal’s immune system. Thus, more nutrients will be available for productive functions such as growth or laying; whilst acting on the feed matrix to provide optimal conditions for digestive enzymes, particularly pepsin, releasing more nutrients from the feed. The double sodium salt of formic acid, while having the same antimicrobial properties as formic acid, has become more commonly used in poultry production, as it is easier to handle and does not negatively affect palatability, as can the pure acid

Thus, several trials have been carried out in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of sodium diformate (Addcon) under various conditions worldwide

A scientific trial with sodium diformate (NDF) was conducted at the research farm of the All-Russian Poultry Institute in Moscow, Russia. Each of the four groups, 0.1 per cent NDF, 0.3 per cent NDF and 0.5 per cent NDF, as well as a negative control, consisted of 35 one-day-old Cobb broilers, which were raised to 38 days on a commercial wheat-corn-soy diet

Feed intake, growth, as well as mortality of birds were recorded. An economic analysis based on the European Broiler Index (EBI) was used to predict the benefit to the farmer. EBI is widely used to describe the efficiency of broiler production. It is calculated as

EBI = Daily weight gain (g) × Survival ( per cent) / 10 × FCR 


Statistical analysis was based on the Emperical Rule and µ±2σ was considered to be a significant result

NDF addition was found to enhance individual live weights with increasing dosage, at day 26 as well as at the termination of the trial (day 38). By the end of the experiment, sodium diformate treatments improved broiler weight gain by 6.5 per cent to 10.3 per cent compared to the negative control. Based on the Empirical Rule all NDF treated groups differed statistically from the negative control (µ±3σ). NDF furthermore improved feed conversion ratio by 7.6 per cent (dosage: 0.1 per cent), 12.0 per cent (0.3 per cent) and 11.4 per cent (0.5 per cent) compared to the negative control group. The results are summarized in Table 1

.

 Control0.1% NDF0.3% NDF0.5% NDF
Table 1. Dose-dependent performance of broiler fed with diformate
Weight, day 26 (g) 904±15 1066±15 1079±19 1039±18
Weight, day 38 (g) 1872±20 1993±19 2044±24 2065±28
FCR 1.84 1.70 1.62 1.63
Survival rate (%) 94.3 100 100 100
EBI 247 302 325 327

These findings lead to the conclusion that addition of sodium diformate considerably improves poultry performance by increasing live weight and reducing feed consumption and thus feed conversion, compared to a negative control. The best results in respect of these parameters, calculated as a European Broiler Index (EBI), were obtained for the dosages of 0.3 per cent and 0.5 per cent NDF. The EBI for 0.3 per cent NDF inclusion improved by more than 31 per cent compared to the negative control group

The benefits of incorporating sodium diformate in broiler diets were as well tested recently under tropical conditions in a trial conducted at the research farm of the University of Agriculture and Forestry in Ho Chi Minh City in Viet Nam. The acidifier was tested at two different dosages (0.1 per cent or 0.3 per cent NDF) in a commercial broiler diet, against the same diet containing either no acidifier (control group) or an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP: BMD-10 at 300g/t of feed). Feed and water were available ad libitum. The effects of NDF on performance parameters of poultry (livestock viability, live weight, feed consumption and feed conversion), on dressing (breast meat ratio), as well as litter quality (water content, bacterial load) were examined. 384 day old birds (Cobb 500) were randomly selected and divided into four treatment groups with 96 chicks each. The diets were fed for 42 days. Performance data were measured at the end of the trial (Table 2).

 Negative ControlNDF (1kg/t)NDF (3kg/t)AGP (300g/t)
Table 2. Performance, dressing and economic parameters in broiler fed with or without sodium diformate (NDF)
Number of birds 96 96 96 96
Final weight (kg) 2.264 2.324 2.365 2.345
Daily weight gain (g/d) 52.8 54.2 55.2 54.7
Daily feed intake (g/d) 109.4 103.1 107.8 110.6
FCR 2.07 1.90 1.95 2.02
Survival (%) 95.8 97.9 97.8 99.0
Breast ratio (%) 22.7 23.9 24.0 23.3
EBI 244 279 277 268
Cost of feed per 1kg gain* 0.72 0.66 0.69 0.71
*Calculated in US dollars

Overall performance in the groups with NDF was increased, even when compared to the AGP group. The addition of 0.1 per cent sodium diformate under the circumstances of the trial resulted in an increase of 2.6 per cent in weight gain, while the feed conversion rate was improved by 8.2 per cent, compared to the negative control. Furthermore, this NDF inclusion was best according to the broiler index as well as being the most cost effective. Furthermore, birds fed with NDF had a numerical improvement when dressed. The breast meat ratio increased by more than five per cent compared to the negative control, while the improvement compared the AGP group was still nearly three per cent. One could speculate that this was caused by the improved protein digestibility, which is often reported in conjunction with the use of dietary acidifier

.


Figure 1. E.coli numbers (MPN/g) in faeces of broiler fed with or without NDF

Finally, the faecal quality and content of birds was examined. It could be stated that the litter quality – based on the moisture content – was significantly (P<0.05) improved in birds fed NDF at both dosages (tested against the negative control). Moisture content in the faecal matter was reduced by either seven per cent (in the 0.1 per cent NDF-dosage) or five per cent (at 0.3 per cent inclusion of the additive); while the AGP-group had only a reduction of four per cent in the moisture content of faecal matter (moisture content of control litter was 57.2 per cent).

In conjunction with the improved quality of the litter is also the significantly reduced (P<0.05) level of E.coli in the faeces (Figure 1), which is measured as MPN (Most Probable Number). If looked at the reduction rate, one could say that the use of dietary sodium diformate reduces the E.coli load in faeces by 96 to 97 per cent!

Conclusion

Numerous reports have demonstrated how including sodium diformate in broiler diets has beneficial effects on performance by lowering bacterial pathogen load and improving nutrient digestibility. These benefits are turned into economic returns, despite the perceived increase in feed cost of using additives.

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 0/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
0 تصويتات / 189 مشاهدة
نشرت فى 8 يناير 2012 بواسطة Khairy4712

 

Every year the marketing age of broilers decreases by an average of 0.75 days for the same performance. This trend is likely to continue in the same direction for the coming years. Nutrition plays a vital role in enabling this improvement. As the feed cost represents an expensive input (~70-80% of broiler production cost), the poultry producer should be aware of the dynamics of the feed in its influence on final product quantity and quality.

Formulating feed ideally requires in-depth knowledge of several parameters such as the energy level to be maintained in the diet, balancing the amino acid profile and electrolytes of feed etc., which, otherwise, if not properly monitored, could negatively influence the performance and profitability of the business.

Further, in light of environmental challenges and disease outbreaks, it is even more challenging to extract the total genetic capability of the birds.

Nutritionists should look at several critical parameters whilst formulating broiler feed. Important amongst these are:

1. Nutritive value of raw materials
2. Amino acid digestibility
3. Amino acid and calorie ratio
4. Selection of suitable fat source
5. Calcium requirement of birds
6. Electrolyte balancing
7. Immuno-modulation
8. Summer management

1. Nutritive value of raw materials


Raw materials are purchased based on price, availability and nutritive value. Nutritive value of raw materials varies from time-to-time, source-to-source and batch-to- batch.

It is a very important task to assess the nutritive value each time to ensure that the feed being manufactured is of desired quality.

It is essential to have preset quality parameters for each and every raw material, based on which purchase of raw material should be made.

Upon purchase of raw material it needs to be analysed for quality parameters after collecting a representative sample. The ideal quality parameters for some key raw materials are as mentioned

Soya de-oiled cake


·Bulk Density: 570-640 g/1000 cc
·Desired Physical Properties
- Colour - Light tan to light brown
- Odour - Fresh, not musty, not sour or burned
- Texture - Homogeneous, free flowing, no lumps or cakes, without coarse particles or dusty
·Urease activity: 0.05-0.20-pH unit change
·Moisture (max): 12%
·Protein solubility (0.2% KOH): 73-85%
·Protein Dispersibility Index: 15-30%
·Contaminants: Particularly check for urea, non-protein nitrogen and/or ammonia
·Crude Protein (min.): 44.0%
·Fiber (max.): 7.0%
·Ash (max.): 6.0%
·Silica (max.): 1.0%
·ME (kcal/kg): ~ 2,375


Fish / Fish meal


·Moisture (max.): 10.0%
·Sand and silica (max.): 5.0%
·Salt (max.): 3.0%
·Urea: Nil
·Check for Decomposition / Rancidity
·Contamination with leather meal
·Bacterial load
·Crude Protein (varies depending on the variety of the fish)
·Ether extract (varies depending on the variety of the fish)

Maize


·Moisture (max.): 12.0%
·Check for Aflatoxins
·Thiram
·Grain size

 Amino acid digestibility


In general, an average of 90% digestibility is considered whilst formulating feeds or feed formulations are based on total amino acids only. Since the raw materials vary in digestibility, it is necessary to consider digestible amino acids whilst formulating the feed to ensure optimum performance.

From Table 1, it is clear that formulations based on digestible amino acids will deliver better results as in many cases the actual digestibility is much lower than the assumed level of 90%.

Further, feed formulations made by using digestible amino acids will economise feed cost for equal performance.

3. Amino acid and calorie ratio


Environmental temperature and the energy content of the feed are key determinants for the feed intake of the bird. Other nutrients are normally adjusted based on the feed intake of the bird. There exists a relationship between energy and digestible amino acids, which if maintained, will enable adjustment of crude protein levels in the diet, thereby reducing the feed cost without compromising performance.

Optimum live performance, maximum protein retention and reduced carcass fat content can only be obtained if a proper ratio between energy and digestible amino acids is maintained. However these ratios vary between different growing periods, i.e. Starter, Grower and Finisher.







Nutritionists employ different energy levels ranging from 2800 to 3300 kcal/kg of feed whilst formulating broiler feeds. As energy increases it is imperative to increase the digestible lysine content.

The energy amino acid ratio as depicted in Table 2 has been found helpful in extracting the maximum genetic capacity of broilers in the Indian context.








In order to arrive at an ideal amino acid profile, the other critical amino acids need to be balanced with reference to lysine (Table 3) after maintaining the energy and digestible lysine ratio

4. Animal Fat/ Vegetable Fat


Fat from animal source as well as from vegetable source are used in feeds. An ideal fatty acid profile should be maintained in the diet to improve the keeping quality and meat quality. Ideal ratios of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids ensure the desired fatty acid profile and ultimately better results.

As a general guideline the ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids should be 'more than one' for better meat quality.

Depending on the following factors, the poultry feed manufacturer should select the fat source to be included in poultry feed:

·Fatty Acid Composition
·Availability
·Quality
·Metabolizable energy content
·Price

Some points regarding fat usage in diet are as follow

·Crude Oils are preferred in poultry over refined oils
·Vegetable source is preferred over animal source
·The essential fatty acids for poultry are Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid, based on which, fat source may be decided
·The oil should be procured fresh
·An Antioxidant should be used for the oil source to avoid rancidity

Some fats and their fatty acid composition are given in Table 4 and energy provided by them in Table 5.

Feed grade fats and oils usually contain water and other non-fat materials; adjustments in fatty acid and ME concentrations should be made accordingly. ME level of diet is subjected to variation depending on level of fat inclusion in diet, ingredient composition and age of poultry






5. Calcium requirement of birds


Next to energy, birds adjust their feed intake based on calcium requirement. In other words, birds will eat more feed for want of calcium-a phenomenon also referred to as calcium hunger. The rapid growth of broilers requires large quantities of feed to be consumed and hence feed manufacturers maintain the calcium level at a marginal level.

In addition to Calcite / Marble powder and DCP, raw materials used in the feed also supply calcium to the birds. It is common to utilise the published values of calcium levels of raw materials during formulating feeds. However, like other nutrients, the calcium content of raw materials varies widely.

Excess calcium will bind to phosphorus (2 molecules of calcium will bind to one molecule of phosphorus) and make phosphorus unavailable to birds, which is a costly input to the feed manufacturers. Further, majority of the feed additives used in the poultry feed are based on a calcium carbonate carrier, which also contributes significant amount of calcium to the diet.

Keeping this in sight, an assessment of calcium in the raw materials and final feed has to be performed:
·Estimation of calcium in the raw materials like Maize, SoyaDOC, Fish/Fish meal, MBM
·Calculation of calcium content in the feed additives
·Estimation of calcium in DCP, Calcite / Marble powder
·Estimation of calcium in the final feeds

Understanding the calcium content of feeds and manipulating it to improve production dynamics is important towards enhancing productivity.

6. Electrolyte balancing


Electrolyte balance is represented by Na+K-Cl balance in the diet. Electrolyte balance is expressed in terms of mEq.

Balancing of electrolytes in the poultry feed is essential in order to spare the bird from utilizing energy in attempting to do the same in metabolizing the feed. Apart from salts such as Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bi-carbonate and Potassium Chloride etc., Electrolytes (Sodium, Potassium and Chloride) are also derived from feed raw materials.

Electrolytes are further derived from feed additives like Chloride from Lysine Hydrochloride, Choline Chloride etc. An assessment and adjustment in the electrolytes balance is important whilst formulating feeds.

Electrolyte balance (Na+K-Cl) of poultry feed should be maintained between 200 to 250 mEq per kg of feed

7. Immuno-modulation


The current trend of intensive poultry keeping and omnipresent disease threats require specific attention towards improving the immune status of the bird through nutrition.

A number of dietary components can have direct and / or indirect implication on the intensity and efficacy of the immune responses. Some are capable of increasing the immune responses while others are detrimental to it. There is no doubt that broilers on well balanced diet sare immunologically competent and able to cope up better with disease challenges.

It is imperative that most nutrients necessary for optimal growth (energy, amino acids, etc.) are also necessary for optimal immuno-competence. The following factors have to be looked into for improving immunity through nutrition:

·A well-balanced feed with adequate energy and amino acid profile
·Proper dietary arginine concentration
·Proper sodium and chloride levels
·Levels of vitamin A, E and C
·Optimum Methionine level
·Adequate Zinc, Manganese and Copper level

Apart from these, various natural and synthetic additives are available to improve immunity.

 Summer management


Feed formulation requires significant adjustment during summer season. The reduction in feed intake and thus reduction in specific dynamic heat of metabolism improves the tolerance of birds towards hot weather. Moreover, changes in the macro and micro formulation increase the passage time of nutrients in the intestine. Some points to be considered during summer management are:

·Increase in the energy content of the feed is required to take care of the reduction in the feed intake in spite of the fact that in summer, the maintenance energy requirement for the bird is comparatively less. The increase in energy is best achieved by adding fat (oil) that stimulates feed intake and further improves the palatability of feed. Fat also reduces the rate of passage of ingesta within the digestive system. (At the same time we need to reduce daily intake of energy by the bird)

·Proportional increase in other nutrients, proportionate to the increase in the energy level

·Minimising the excess of amino acids improves feed intake

·A diet with lower protein levels and supplemented with limiting amino acids will help in reducing stress to the kidney and also lowering of ammonia levels in poultry houses

·Ammonium chloride supplementation through feed improves weight gain.

·Sodium bicarbonate addition in diet is beneficial

·Micro minerals may be over the normal requirement .

·Inclusion of potassium .5 kg / chloride 0.5 kg / MT feed in prestarter and starter diets is also useful

·Feed electrolyte balance should be maintained more than 250 mEq especially in the summer. (The bicarbonate ions coming from sodium bicarbonate should also be considered while balancing)

·Usage of Vitamin C (coated) at a minimum dose of 100g / MT of feed is advisable

·Chelated trace minerals usage is advisable

· Increase in the fibre content of the feed is useful in slowing down the intestinal motility (which is normally higher in the summer). Including at least 2- 3% SFDOC to increase the fibre in all types of feed will deliver better results. (This will contribute at least 0.3 to 0.4% increases in the fibre of the diet)

· Inclusion of enzymes is preferable during summer months

· Addition of Phytase (80 to 200 g/ton) depending on the feed formula is useful in reducing the stress to the birds

Micro nutrient optimisation


Various micro ingredients are employed in poultry feed production in terms of additives / supplements to make up the deficiency (vitamins, trace minerals etc.,) to maximise the performance (Antibiotic growth promoters, Lysophospholipids etc.) or to combat disease challenges (Anticoccidials, Antibiotics etc.). An ideal combination of micro ingredients will depend upon the type of raw materials used in the feed, environmental challenges and the growth pressure.

Optimizing the micro ingredient formulation with right level of additives is important in maximising the genetic potential of the bird.

Modifying the growth response curve


At a given feed formulation, broilers respond to one particular growth curve. Nutritionist optimizes the growth pattern towards a desired growth curve B (as shown in figure1) to maximise the economics of broiler production.

For the given formulation, observations of the growth curve will help in determining the duration of each feed to be given to the bird. Ideally the prestarter or starter feed (Protein rich feed) should be given to develop the body frame rather than developing body mass.






Further, the developing focus of poultry business is towards functional parameters and other specific tasks such as:

  • High breast meat yield
  • Reduced abdominal fat
  • Improved texture and taste of the meat
  • Raising without antibiotics
  • Rearing broilers without lameness

Nutritionists at Avitech recom-mend the following nutritional standards for broilers to extract the genetic potential of broilers (Table 6).



Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 15/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
5 تصويتات / 469 مشاهدة

بداري التسمين

الفصل الأول

مقدمة

بداري التسمين هي أحدى سلالات الدواجن والتي لها خاصية اكتساب اللحم حيث تصل إلى متوسط وزن يتراوح بين 2,000 كجم إلى 2,300 كجم خلال مدة تربية تصل إلى 37 يوم وتستهلك خلالها كمية عليقه تصل الى4,000 كجم

كلمة بداري التسمين لا تعنى فقط الفرحة البيضاء بل تشمل أيضا السلالات الملونة الريش والتي لها خاصية إنتاج اللحم

تفضل الفئة الغالبة من المستهلكين الأوزان الثقيلة والتي تصل إلى 2كجم أو تزيد مما يدفع التاجر إلى تحميل الأوزان الثقيلة من المزرعة فقط ويرفض الأوزان الخفيفة فيلجا صاحب المزرعة إلى مد فترة التسمين إلى 40 يوم أو تزيد عن ذلك قليلا للوصول بالقطيع إلى متوسط الأوزان المطلوبة والمرغوبة من التجار

أنواع سلالات التسمين البيضاء

  اربور أكرز- هيبرو- لوهمان - ها برد- روس- كوب- افيان- أناك
            

    وتمتاز بأنها:

*تعطى معدلات أوزان أفضل من السلالات الحمراء

*مدة دورة التسمين قصيرة ولاتزيد عن 50يوم

*يمكن عمل دورات كثيرة في السنة الواحدة قد تصل إلى 6دورات في السنة الواحدة مما يزيد من هامش الربح

*يرغب أغلبية التجار في شرائها عن السلالات الحمراء

ولا تمتاز بالاتي:

*حساسة للاصابه بالميكوبلازما وهو اخطر إمراض بداري التسمين تعانى منه الكثير من مزارع التسمين

*لا تتحمل درجات الحرارة العالية

*أسعار شرائها ككتاكيت مرتفعة مقارنة بمثيلاتها الحمراء

*لا تناسب ظروف التربية مع المربى المبتدى

 

سلالات التسمين الحمراء:

1:شيفر ( احمر)

2:ساسو(متعددة الألوان)

3:ايزا براون

وتمتاز بأنها:

*اقل حساسية للإصابة بالميكوبلازما

*مقاومة لدرجات الحرارة العالية

*أغلى سعرا عند البيع عن السلالات البيضاء

*يفضلها بعض التجار في الشراء

*مفضلة في الطعم عند بعض الناس حيث طعمها مقارب لطعم البلدي

*تناسب ظروف المربى المبتدىء

*أسعار شرائها ككتاكيت رخيصة عن السلالات البيضاء

ولا تمتاز بالاتي:

*تحتاج إلى مدة تسمين طويلة قد تصل إلى شهران أو تزيد مما يؤدى إلى عمل اقل من خمسة دورات في السنة الواحدة وهو متوسط عدد الدورات الواجب عملها في السنة

دراسة جدوى تفصيلية

المصروفات

1-مطهرات للتطهير 150جنيه

2-جير حي لاطفائة بالعنبر 100جنيه

3-5نقلة نشارة في 200اجمالى 1000جنيه

4-كهرباء للعنبر 150جنيه

5- عمالة 1000 جنيه

6-ايجار العنبر خلال الدورة 1500 جنيه

7- نقل 8نقلات علف في 20 اجمالى 160 جنيه

8-دواء مقسم إلى تحصينات ومضادات حيوية وخلافه    8   الاف جنيه

9-تدفئة خلال الدورة بعدد      80انبوبة في 5اجمالى 400 جنيه

10-نثريات 200جنيه

11-عدد 4500كتكوت في 3.25الكتكوت اجمالى 14625جنيه

12-عدد 16طن ونصف علف حتى نهاية الدورة في           3300اجمالى 54450

اجمالى المصروفات 80585 جنيه

الإيرادات

1-بيع سبله 1400جنيه

2-بيع عدد 100 فرد فرزة بمتوسط 1250 جرام   بسعر 7ونصف الكيلو اجمالى 937.5 جنيه

3- بيع عدد 4200كتكوت بعد خصم نافق 200كتكوت بمتوسط وزن 2100جرام بسعر 10.5اجمالى 92610جنيه

 

اجمالى الإيرادات  94947.5

صافى الربح يساوى

80585-94947.5= 14362.5

ملاحظات على ما سبق وبعد ايجابيات وسلبيات المهنة

1-نوع الكتكوت روس

2-تم إدخال الدورة يوم 24/1وتم التسويق على 37يوم

3- قد تزيد نسبة النفوق عن 6% إذا أصيب القطيع بأحد الأمراض الخطرة مثل الجامبورو أو النيوكاسل فتختل اقتصاديات الدورة.

4- قد ينخفض سعر كيلو الدجاج لظروف العرض و الطلب في السوق و لا توجد مقاييس يمكن على أساسها التنبؤ بسعر البيع عند التسويق.

5- أسعار الأعلاف لا يمكن التحكم فيها و قد تزيد أثناء التربية فتزيد بالتالي المصروفات,مع بقاء سعر البيع خاضعا لقانون العرض و الطلب .

6- طاقة العنبر تقل في فصل الصيف فتكون سعة العنبر 4500 كتكوت فقط فيحمل العنبر ب 3/4 طاقته.

7- تظهر بعض الأفراد في نهاية الدورة في حالة تقزم و تباع كسردة (أعوريات)و يكون سعرها منخفضا

8- الدورة التي تربي في فصل الصيف لا يصل متوسط الأوزان إلى 2.100 كجم في 37 يوما و يكون متوسط الوزن في حدود 1.900 كجم .


عوامل ايجابية للمشروع:

1- يمكن بيع الزرق (السبلة) بعد نهاية الدورة .

2- قد يرتفع سعر كيلو الفراخ وقت التسويق و يكون في ذلك فائدة كبيرة للمربي.

3- يجب على المربي أن ينظر إلى اقتصاديات العنبر في عام كامل (6 دورات) لأنه من المحتمل أن تخسر دورة أو دورتين لكن من المؤكد أن تكسب باقي الدورات لتعويض خسارة هذه الدورة .

4- يمكن للمربي الاستغناء عن بند العمالة في المصروفات و قدره 1500 جنيه و يقوم هو بنفسه بتنفيذ برنامج العمل اليومي من تعليف و نظافة و إضافة أدوية و خلافه خاصة إن حجم القطيع ليس بالكبير

5- يكتسب المربي (دورة بعد أخرى) خبرة كبيرة جدا تفيده في كيفية تخفيض التكاليف و زيادة الإيرادات.



 

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

 

Over the next decades the world’s population will undergo social and economic changes, which will notably influence the consumption and production of meat around the world. In the stream of these changes, broiler meat seems to enjoy a series of important features when compared to mostly beef and pork. This may convert it to a leading protein in the context of a future “meat-hungrier” world

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The world population will grow and will reach an astonishing 8 billion people by 2030 from about 6.1 billion in 2000, a 150% growth in 30 years. Percentage wise this expansion will be the highest ever in Africa, with 175% population growth from 800 million to 1.4 billion, while on the other continents the expansion will vary from 32% to 40%. However, considering the population size, Asia, as whole, will be the leading continent, with a population of 4.1 billion people in 2030, equivalent to 60.5% of the world’s population. In the same time frame the world’s population will age as well. By 2030, the average population’s age in the European Union will be about 44 years, in North America and Oceania around 38 years, Latin America & Caribbean and Asia, around 32 and Africa, the youngest continent, then, around 22 years. Also the urbanisation population rate will change dramatically through to 2030, when 75% of it, or 5 billion people, approximately, will be living in urban areas, from just 25%, in 1950, while some 3.2 billion will be living in rural areas.   This dramatic change in the rate of urbanisation in the future brings some reflections but it is not yet consistently addressed, or evaluated. The world will have fewer people in the countryside to produce the feed and food that will be demanded by the growth in population and to cope with the challenges posed by the change in their corresponding diets

Growing incomes

Regarding economy, the forecasts are quite exciting, as global population will become richer. The average world GDP per capita emerges from US$ 4,535, in 1990, to US$ 6,103, in 2010 to finally reach as high as US$ 11,248, in 2050, a growth of 148% for a corresponding growth of approximately 72% in the population’s size. China and India will lead, by far, in terms of GDP annual growth rate in the years to come, followed by Latin America, Mexico, Middle-East and South Korea, in this order, with a more modest annual rate. In developed countries, with mature markets, an even smaller growth is expected. In the stream of the GDP performance, income growth will be seen in developing countries (around 5.5%) much more than in developed countries (around 2%) and well above the world’s average (some 3.3%). Benefiting from the world enrichment, the population living with a US$ 1/day or less will be cut by half, to 749 million, in 2015, or 13.2% of the world’s population, from 1.269 billion, in 1990, or 32% of the world’s population. East Asia and South Asia will experience the most dramatic decline, both in number of people and corresponding percentage of their populations, followed by Latin America. In Sub-Saharan Africa the number of people in this category is forecasted to increase in size, but decline in the corresponding percentage of its population.

Up scaling of diets

The immediate reflection of the economic improvement of those populations is the expected upscaling of their diets. People will start eating more, increasing the daily caloric intake. By increasing the calories intake world hunger will hopefully decline in those regions, particularly in South and East Asia, where the size of the undernourished population must plummet. The undernourished population will likely decline in Latin America, while in Sub-Saharan Africa, Near East and Northern Africa it will tend to be somewhat stable, with small variation in size over time. According to FAO, the world’s population average caloric intake will reach some 3,000 kcal/day, in 2030, from 2,600 kcal/day, in 1997-99, and about 2,000 kcal/day, in 1964-66. This calorie intake augument is be mostly fueled by the increased consumption of wheat, vegetable oils and meats, in general. Asia will lead growth, with annual demand for meats coming from 115 million tonnes, in 2007, to 149 million, in 2017, a 30% rise; in the sequence comes Latin America (from 37 to 47 million tonnes, or 27%); EU (from 58 to 65 million tonnes, or 12%); North America (from 44 to 48 million tonnes, or 7%) and Oceania (stagnated in 3 million tonnes in the period, with no growth in demand)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yet the percentage growth in meat demand in developing countries must triumph over that in developed countries, the meat consumption per capita in developed countries will grow more and become almost three times higher - 70 kg/per capita/yr - than in developing countries - 30 kg/per capita/yr - which will experience, additionally, an important asymmetry across the continents over time, with Latin America consuming 60 kg/per capita, Asia, some 28 kg/per capita and Africa 10 kg/per capita of meat, annually, by 2020. Taking all of these changes into account, chicken meat consumption per capita should grow by 20% in developing countries and around 12% in developed countries, leaving behind pork, lamb and beef, and ascending from an opaque position in 1964-66, to become a front-runner, along with pork, in 2030

 

Efficient convertor

Broilers are very efficient vegetable protein-converting machines compared to pork and beef. While beef needs some 5 kg of feed to produce a kilogramme of meat and pork some 3 kg, broilers demand less than 2 kg - in fact 1.7 kg - to achieve the same result. Additionally, chicken meat is a lot greener to produce, as well. According to World Bank’s World Development Report 2011, producing one kilogramme of broiler meat demands, as a whole, 3,900 liters of water, while for pork the volume is 4,800 liters and for beef, 15,500 liters. The greenhouse gas emissions from intensive poultry production exploitations is equivalent to a driving distance of 22.7 km per kilogramme of meat produced, while for pork the relationship is 31.6 km/kg meat and for beef 79.1 km/kg, according to the same report. Landwise, the requirement to produce one kilogramme of chicken meat is minimal and equivalent, only, to that required for a kilogramme of eggs or fish from aquaculture. Therefore, it is far less than that demanded for pork, a lot smaller than that for intensive beef production and incomparably smaller than that for extensive beef production, according to a recent study carried out by Rabobank. The differences among the top three animal proteins still favour broiler meat over its competitors when it comes to the final consumer level, while a live chicken yields about 50% of its live weight at retail level, pig yields 45% and a steer, 36%, only, according to the same study. These yields’, when seen under an environmental impact perspective, use of soil, water, grain, fuel, manpower and etc., in general, demonstrate that broiler meat is the least resources-depleting one among the top three animal protein production chains

 

Universal acceptance

 

 

 

 

Unlike pork and beef, chicken meat enjoys zero religious restrictions and, therefore, is consumed by all religions adepts. Along with its universal religious acceptance, its leading affordability among the three animal proteins contributed to its popularity and has been a key factor in boosting its consumption around the world over the last decades. In Brazil, a 10-year retail prices historical series for beef, chicken meat and eggs, clearly testify its competitive advantage over beef, as a kilogramme of chicken meat is worth about 40% of a kilogramme of beef, on a long-run average. Compared to its counterparts, chicken meat is unquestionably healthier. A portion of 100 grammes of breast fillet contains 142 calories, 3 grammes of fat and 72 mg of cholesterol, only, parameters equivalent to those in 100 g of salmon. For the same amount pork sirloin contains 159 calories, 5 g of fat and 80 mg of cholesterol and beef sirloin, respectively, 171 calories, 7g and 76 mg

Functional properties

Besides all these advantages, chicken meat additionally has functional properties. Thanks to its mild colour and taste, it has tremendous capabilities as a raw material. As such, it can incorporate flavours and accept shapes and textures that do not conflict with its natural structural characteristics and organoleptic properties, thus making its applicability in the development of new meat products are almost endless. Thanks to these competitive advantages, broiler meat emerges as the most probable and promising response to a future meat-hungrier world. Yet demand will be characterised by distinct consumption patterns around the world, which will be driven by culture, habits and purchasing power, and the attributes that chicken meat present are of universal concern. What are we talking about? We are talking about the fact that no matter where and how chicken meat will be consumed in the years to come, it must be affordable, wholesome, safe and be capable to comply with a wide scope of expectations from consumers around the world

Saving grammes

In the broiler industry, gram is the ruler to measure the distance between a successful and a failing processing company. Therefore, maximising the process yield, by keeping losses and costs to a minimum and, consequently, competitiveness, affordability and profitability to a maximum, are the number one goals of all companies around the world. In this scenario, the plant management is required to pursue the performance of the micro variables, in addition to the macro variables, to be really successful! Two examples illustrate how important it is to focus on process details. Carcasses may easily lose between 0.5% and 1.5% of their slaughtered weight due to the subcutaneous fat layer melting during the scalding process. For a company running 200,000 bpd of 2.5 kg it may produce losses as the figures below show: 200,000 bpd x 2.5 kg live weight = 500,000 kg/day Losses percentage ranging from 0.5% to 1.5% Day: 2,500 to 7,500 kg Month: 62,500 to 187,500 kg Year: 750,000 to 2,250,000 kg Additionally, drip-loss affects sensorial quality of the meat, the appearance of the fresh product and the process’ economics, as any ± 0.5% in product’s moisture retention capability has a strong impact on the company’s bottom line. For a plant running 200,000 bpd of 2.5 kg, ± 0.5% may mean: 200,000 bpd x 2.5 kg live weight = 500,000 Kg/day ± 0.5% in product’s moisture retention capability Day: ± 2,500 kg Month: ± 62,500 kg Year: ± 750,000 kg

Securing wholesomeness

Whole carcasses or parts are primarily intended for human consumption. As such, it is mandatory, in the majority of countries, that they reach the market free of diseases and/or physical defects. Therefore, during processing carcasses undergo sanitary inspection to secure their wholesomeness. Fecal and/or bile contamination, skin problems (dermatitis and cellulitis) contusions and fractures are common causes of losses in poultry plants around the world due to salvaging and products downgrading. In Brazil, partial condemnation of chicken carcasses affected 6% of the country’s annual slaughter, inflicting losses that are estimated at 75 million kilogrammes of meat annually (5 billion birds slaughtered annually, 2.5 kg of live weight and 10% of the carcass weight lost by salvaging). The top six causes, responsible for 85% of the country’s annual loss, equivalent to 63.8 million kilogrammes of meat, are contamination, which accounts for 39% of the total, dermatitis and cellulitis 33%, fractures and contusions 18%, and arthritis 10%. With a social and environmental perspective, that loss is equivalent to the annual consumption of 2 million people fed annually a diet of 30 kg of chicken meat per capita and to some 70 thousand tonnes of corn and soy. The economic losses inflicted by the presence of minor physical defects on whole carcasses and/or parts, which are not salvageable, lead to the downgrade of products. The market prices of the downgrade products are lower than those obtained for grade-A products and the impact on the company due to this must be avoided

Number one priority

Broilers are very efficient vegetable protein-converting machines compared to pork and beef.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The safety of poultry products must be number one priority as it is the only attribute that guarantees that poultry meat is proper and safe for human consumption. Its importance, in the context of the poultry industry, is the same for either domestic and/or international markets. The microorganisms of greatest concern for the poultry industry are Campylobacter, Salmonella ssp. and E. coli, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In spite of the technological and operational advances achieved by this industry around the world, these pathogens are still relevant threats to the public health. According to a recently published study carried out by researchers at the University of Florida and focusing on the US market, these three microorganisms are among the top five causes of foodborne diseases. Campylobacter-poultry and Salmonella ssp.- poultry are, respectively, the first and fourth causes of foodborne outbreaks. In both cases they are responsible, every year, for the loss of thousands of work days and billions of dollars spent in medical treatment. Therefore reducing their presence to safe levels in poultry products must be a priority for every company

Facing segmentation

Last but not least, chicken meat has to face segmentation in the demand around the world, as world population richness increases. While in the lowest-income countries (people living with US$ 1 or less a day) the diets are fully-vegetable and geared exclusively to the survival of the population, in others, whose income reaches US$ 2 or more a day, meat gains importance in the daily diet by replacing part of the vegetables and grains. By ascending the social scale, when it comes to the transition countries, whose income level is well above the world’s average and meat represents a far larger proportion of their diets, its consumption is strongly associated with convenience, flavour and pleasure. Finally, by ascending further to the top of the world’s social pyramid, in the richest countries, meat is consumed not as an ordinary food, as we all know, but as a source of well being for embracing nutritional and functional properties. No matter what the consumers’ expectations are, chicken meat must comply with them all

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  The objective of every broiler growing operation is to obtain maximum performance at the lowest possible expense. This begins with good genetic material. The challenge, however, is to find the balance between all the influencing factors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Each broiler chick hatches with a pre-determined genetic potential for growth rate (weight gain), feed conversion, meat yield, and resistance to infection and stress. Individual birds of the same genetic line do not have the same potential for performance

Broiler primary breeder companies are doing a good job of improving growth rate, meat yield, feed conversion, and, to some extent, resistance to diseases. The grower cannot do anything to alter or modify the genetic potential of the chicks placed on the farm, but he can certainly do a lot to optimally express the genetic potential of the birds. Every broiler primary breeder company claims that its broiler chickens are the best. It is true that broiler chickens of certain genetic lines have a better genetic potential than others for one or more of the aforementioned performance parameters, but it is ultimately the responsibility of the growers to get the best out of the broiler chickens placed. If a flock that receives a good quality, balanced diet does not perform well, then the grower should blame no one but himself for the poor flock performance

Expressing hidden potential

The genetic potential of a bird is hidden, and nobody is able to see or measure this potential in the day-old broiler chickens on a commercial farm, as all commercial, day-old chicks look alike. A flock of broiler chickens with the best genetic potential can have the worst performance if not managed well. Every broiler grower would like to achieve the best livability, weight gain, and feed conversion in the flock, and the best thing any broiler breeder company can do is to work with the growers to optimally express the birds’ genetic potential

Much can be written about different aspects of egg incubation, nutrition, flock management, and disease prevention, each of which impacts the performance of commercial broiler chickens. Below is a summarised version of what can be done to optimally express the genetic potential of broiler chickens

Begin properly

Start with healthy, vigorous chicks, and place them in a clean, disinfected environment. It is frustrating to see high mortality in young chicks due to dehydration, starve-out, yolk sac infection, or omphalitis. It is difficult to understand why in this era of “science and technology” one cannot prevent these easy-to-prevent problems, especially when they occur repeatedly on farms that obtain their broiler chicks from a particular source. These problems are usually identified (diagnosed) but in many cases no one bothers to investigate why they occur. If many of the one-day-old chicks have yolk sac infection, then the company that supplied the hatching eggs should be given a failing grade, as this problem simply indicates significant contamination of the hatching eggs with bacteria

Omphalitis (infection of the navel) simply indicate infection, usually with bacteria, of incompletely healed navel. If many chicks appear dehydrated and weak at the time of placement, then it is the responsibility of the company who supplied the chicks to investigate the hatching process and every step between hatching and delivering the chicks to the farm. A company should keep a detailed record of incubator/hatcher settings and of every event (including times) that occur between pulling the chicks from the hatcher and delivering them to the farm. The problem could simply be something went wrong during transportation of the birds to the farm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One cannot emphasise enough the importance of quality assurance/control system that every broiler breeder company should have. Any complaint from a broiler grower must be documented and investigated; if a problem is found, a corrective action must be taken and documented

Management

Optimising management is extremely important, but what is management? Flock management is a broad term that should be defined in a way that is meaningful to and understood by growers. Management of poultry flock can be defined as the art and science of continuously providing the birds with a comfortable environment. There is more art than science in managing any poultry flock. The most important components of management are stocking density, management of feeders and drinkers, airflow (ventilation), ambient temperature, and litter management. These components are integrated and linked in a chain, meaning that any deficiency in one of these components will break the chain and weaken or disrupt the other components. Managing broiler chicken flocks is not a “rocket science”. Basically, basic knowledge, determination, and hard work is required

Growers must realise that what they get from their flocks is in most cases proportional to the quality of flock management. In any company, it is the responsibility of the upper management to educate and motivate the growers. It is interesting to note how many companies have a continuing education programme for their broiler growers

Essential nutrients

Everyone knows that human and animal babies grow well if they eat food that contains the essential nutrients at the correct levels. Here comes the role of the poultry nutritionists, who can be left with the science of this topic

 

Disease prevention

In today’s intensive poultry production sector, prevention of diseases is one of the most challenging tasks that face small and big poultry companies at all levels of management. Clinical and subclinical infections can have a significant negative impact on the performance of broiler flocks

 

Whenever a disease is suspected, the grower should consult a poultry veterinarian to investigate the problem. Sales and service people, nutritionists, and live-production personnel in any company should never think that they know poultry medicine, which nowadays is a specialty within the profession of veterinary medicine. Health problems have been occurring in successive poultry flocks on some farms because professional veterinary help has not been sought to investigate and solve the problems

Biosecurity

One cannot talk about prevention of infectious diseases without touching on the basis on biosecurity. Hundreds of articles have been written about biosecurity on poultry farms, but many of them are lengthy and do not cover the critical points of biosecurity

 

The best thing any broiler breeder company can do is to work with the growers to optimally express the birds’ genetic potential.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Every company should have a short version of biosecurity policy for its employees. This short version should not be longer than two pages, and it should be read, understood, and signed by every employee. Do not expect people to read and comprehend a 30-page document

How can a company ensure that employees comply with the biosecurity policy? Most, if not all, companies try to enforce the biosecurity policy by only threatening employees with disciplinary actions or termination if not complying. That is fine, but additionally, employees and growers should be periodically educated and reminded about the importance of biosecurity. Providing incentives to the farm employees and live-production personnel may be a good approach to motivate employees to comply with the policy. Threatening language alone is not the best way to ensure compliance of employees. A framed copy of the short version (with large letters) of biosecurity should be hung on the wall in each farm, hatchery, and feed mill. Employees should also be aware and fully understand that most disease outbreaks occur because of complacency in biosecurity, and for this reason they should never be complacent any time on any aspect of biosecurity. Again, the best written biosecurity policy may fail if the company does not have a strategy to motivate its employees to willingly comply with the policy

Never rely only on vaccination and preventative medication to prevent infectious diseases. Many people in the poultry industry have the perception that if a flock is vaccinated against a particular disease, then that flock is guaranteed to be fully protected against that disease. Unfortunately, this is not the case as infectious agents, due to different reasons, can break through the vaccinal immunity. Biosecurity is the first line of defence against infectious diseases. Vaccination or preventative medication is the second line of defence. So, biosecurity and vaccination or preventative medications are complementary to each another

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 15/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
5 تصويتات / 244 مشاهدة

Chickens and other birds are bred for high performance - converting feed as efficiently as possible into animal protein. In order to achieve this goal, all circumstances should be optimal, such as the availability of ample and good drinking water. Keeping track of water quality and making sure the drinking system is working properly is of great importance.

Checking the water on the poultry farm is something that should be done on a regular basis to ensure that the adequate quantity and quality of water is available. Water, along with temperature management, good air quality, clean formulated feed and protection from disease, are the five basic needs of poultry to optimise bird performance. Water and feed consumption are directly correlated, meaning that if one decreases, they both decrease. So if water consumption drops for a few days, then feed consumption will decrease as well. While water is an important nutrient, it is also a critical component of the environmental control system when using evaporative cooling to keep the birds cool in hot weather.

In this article we will look at factors in the water system that should be evaluated to ensure that plenty of water is available when the birds need it. When checking the water system, the complete system should be evaluated. This means starting at the well and working through to the end of the drinker line.

Starting at the well

At the well, a proper well head should be in place to ensure that rain water and/or runoff does not contaminate the water at its source. It is wise to conduct a water quality test regularly (about once a year) to determine the mineral content, pH and hardness. Low or high pH, high mineral content, or a combination of elevated minerals can impair equipment function and efficacy of vaccines or other medications administered through the drinking water. For example, iron in the water from wells with high iron concentrations can be oxidised. The resulting material is a brownish-reddish particulate that can plug water filters and result in leaky drinkers. It is not uncommon in the US to speak to producers that have to change water filters every 2-3 days during periods of high water usage. Unfortunately, oxidised iron is not the only thing that can plug water filters. Oxidised manganese, magnesium or sediment can cause regular changes of water filters. If a water test indicates a mineral problem, a water treatment professional should be consulted to determine what steps are required to improve the water quality.

Depending on state regulations in the US, most states require that new wells be tested for microbial contamination. Normally this looks specifically for the presence of coliforms that can indicate faecal or runoff contamination.

Water devoid of any microorganisms is desired, because even non-pathogenic organisms such as iron bacteria can cause the formation of a biofilm, which can restrict water flow and even block nipples on drinker lines. If bacteria are present, consult with a professional to determine the best protocol for shock chlorinating of the well. While this procedure can reduce microbial counts from wells, it may have to be repeated to keep the microbial counts low.

 

Ample quantity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Water volume and availability are important. When water use on a poultry farm is examined, the water used by the evaporative cooling system during hot weather can be as much as three times greater than water consumed by the birds. Therefore, when digging wells and determining how much water is needed by the farm, the equation should include evaporative cooling pads, fogging nozzles, bird water consumption and the number of poultry houses. Pipe sizing should be adequate to supply both the evaporative cooling needs as well as the drinking water.

The water pressure must be high enough at the well to ensure 60 psi at the house (1 psi = 0.069 bar). In most cases, this means that water pressure at the well will be 10-20 psi higher depending on the location of the well and its orientation to the house. While 60 psi at the house is desirable, note that the pressure going to the drinker lines may be different and the drinker manufacturers’ guidelines should be followed to prevent water line regulator damage.

 

House water panel

Management of the system at the house water panel involves monitoring water pressure at several locations. Some house environmental controllers and alarm systems can be wired with gauges/sensors to detect drops in water pressure. Water pressure coming from the well needs to be checked. Water pressure decreases after flowing through the water filter, pressure regulator and medicator, and as a result should be monitored prior to entering the house. Water pressure for individual drinker systems may vary, but in general it is somewhere around 20-30 psi. Closely monitor water pressure reduction at the filters and rinse or replace filters as they become clogged with foreign material.

Medicator pumps

Totally enclosed water systems have been adopted by the poultry industry. One of the biggest benefits from this type of system is the cleanliness and ability to prevent bacteria and other foreign materials from entering the drinking water. Birds obtain the water directly from the water system on demand by pushing a pin located on the bottom of the drinker line. Medicator pumps are a normal component of most poultry house water systems and are used to deliver vaccines, medications, water treatment and sanitation products. However, this is a weak point in the system. Open five gallon buckets (1 gallon = 3.78 litres) are the common containers used to mix stock solutions to be delivered through the drinker system and are a potential contamination source of the drinker line. It is recommended to use a covered container to prevent foreign material from being introduced into the water line.

 

Drinker lines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The regulator, water pipe, nipple and standpipe are all components of the water line that should be examined and maintained. For the most part these components are internal with the exception of the standpipe, which is usually a clear tube containing a floating ball to monitor water pressure with an opening at the top to allow air in the lines to escape. This opening is a potential spot for foreign debris, like dust, to enter the system. It is not unusual to observe standpipes in broiler houses that are so dirty that the ball can not be seen. Efforts should be made to regularly clean and sanitise the drinker line. One of the simplest things to do in the process is routine flushing of the water lines to be done following the use of the medicator to prevent bacteria or other organisms and material from accumulating. In between flocks, water lines should be sanitised and flushed with products that are approved by the drinker manufacturer and integrator to prevent damage to the water system or negative effects on the birds. A general rule for how long to flush water lines is about one minute for every 100 ft (30 m) of water line. Therefore, in a 500 ft (150 m) broiler house with water lines length around 250 ft (75 m), then the line should be flushed for about 2-3 minutes. Leaky drinker lines can occur due to improper use of water
line sanitisers or from the introduction of foreign materials into the water (i.e. oxidised iron precipitant). However, regular maintenance of the water lines can prevent this and ensure that maximum equipment performance is obtained. Care should be taken when choosing and using water line cleaners. Consult with the drinker manufacturer before introducing a solution that could possibly damage the drinker system, and be sure to follow product guidelines on the concentrations to be used.

Drinker line height and pressure should be started low at the beginning of the flock and increased as the birds get older. Water pressure that is set too high during the beginning of the flock may restrict chick water consumption due to the inability to lead to push the pen properly. High water pressure can also result in more water wastage and wet litter. Drinker lines that are too high can restrict water consumption while water lines that are too low can result in wet litter that will have secondary effects. This could include a reduction in air quality (high ammonia), increased incidence of disease and increased carcass downgrades due to poor paws or breast blisters and burns.

 

Water meters

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most houses have water meters on the drinker line. Some farms have the water meters wired into the environmental controller, which can monitor daily water consumption and keep a history from a flock. The use of multiple water meters can provide additional information that can be utilised by producers in the daily management of the house and farm. While having the water meter hooked to the controller is easy and provides accurate water consumption data, it is not a necessity as daily recording of the water meter reading can provide similar information. It is wise to monitor water consumption daily, because sudden increases or decreases can indicate issues with either the birds (environmental stress, disease) or the water system (leaks, air locks, water restriction due to residue build-ups).

Regular maintenance and good drinker line management during and in between flocks can improve both drinker and bird performance while extending equipment life. Care must be taken when running products through the drinker line to ensure that none of the internal parts are damaged and that no microorganisms are able to thrive. Before applying any water treatment a water test should be conducted. Application of treatments to control microbial growth, such as chlorine, can cause precipitants to form in water that has high iron or manganese concentrations. This will clog filters and possibly result in leaky drinkers, neither of which will be good for bird performance. Test wells routinely to ensure that water quality will not affect drinker function. By taking some time to do these steps, broiler and drinker line performance should be optimised.

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 33/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
11 تصويتات / 308 مشاهدة

Broiler Challenges

are

Leg Quality

Mineral Program

Amino Acid Optimization

Feed Cost Optimization

Pathogen Control

Gut Health

Feed Quality

 

 

Leg Quality

Leg and footpad problems are very common in fast growing poultry and can result in losses to bird performance and efficiency as well as negatively impacting animal welfare

Novus offers a number of nutritional solutions for poultry that, when combined with best management practices, result in birds with healthier bones, skin and internal organs. Employing a strategy to enhance leg quality and tissue integrity optimizes production, offering benefits on multiple levels.

ACTIVATE® | Optimize gut health to reduce incidence of diarrhea and wet litter.
 
CIBENZA™ | Enhance protein digestion to reduce nitrogen output.
 
ALIMET® and MHA® | Optimize amino acid formulation to minimize excess dietary protein.
 
MINTREX® | Support optimal development of skeleton and tissue.
 
Tissue Health Best Practice | Maintain clean, dry litter and a well-ventilated house.

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS

Healthy birds have fewer problems that can result in downgrading or rejection and associated monetary loss experience.   Consumer consciousness of food safety continues to rise. Addressing these health issues in production assures people that they’re buying a product of the highest integrity.     As consumer awareness of animal welfare issues increases, the most successful, highly regarded producers will be those who maintain the healthiest birds.

 

Mineral Program


Proper mineral nutrition is a key component of effective poultry growth, performance and health. Poultry producers typically overfeed minerals to ensure that all nutritional requirements have been met

Feeding high-quality chelated trace minerals offers significant production advantages. Novus technology, helps deliver a superior level of nutrition that supports animal health, immunity and structure.

MINTREX® | Double the nutritional power of mineral sources with the HMTBa in MINTREX.

MINTREX Zn
| Optimize zinc nutrition.

MINTREX Mn
| Optimize manganese nutrition.

MINTREX Cu
| Optimize copper nutrition.

ZORIEN® SeY
| Optimize selenium nutrition.

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS


Increased bioavailability of minerals not only increases performance, but also reduces mineral waste. Producers experience fewer instances of downgrading and culling resulting in greater profitability.

Environmentally compatible production methods present an image of responsibility and
accountability for individual producers and the industry as a whole.

Chelated trace mineral nutrition eliminates the need for overfeeding minerals to compensate
for lack of bioavailability. Fewer minerals fed means fewer minerals excreted, reducing
environmental concerns.

Amino Acid Optimization


Amino acid nutrition drives yield and efficiency in the animal and by optimizing the amino acids, the profitability of a poultry operation increases

End product requirements for poultry production keep changing, driving demand for higher meat yielding birds. Novus can help optimize diets for yield while balancing cost efficiency and increasing speed to market—ensuring maximum performance out of every feed ingredient purchased. 

IDEA™ | Know protein ingredients thoroughly before formulating.

ALIMET
® and MHA® | Optimize bioefficacy, allowing birds to fully utilize all amino acids added to the diet.

CIBENZA™ DP100
| Unlock underutilized amino acids in your ingredients.

Amino Acid Modeling
| Balance diet with least cost and best performance in mind.

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS


Increasing production efficiency and getting more value out of ingredients, results in a healthier profit margin.

The industry accomplishes more with less, meeting the needs of sustainable production along with increasing consumer expectations for environmentally compatible practices from food providers.

Feed Cost Optimization


Ingredient costs on protein are currently high and energy costs are again expected to rise. Additionally, ingredients of questionable quality and digestibility are coming into

Novus offers solutions to help manage this single most important and costly input.
Our products allow for greater flexibility in formulation and increased control over feed inputs, which leads to greater productivity and profitability. 

CIBENZA™ DP 100 | Optimize protein digestion.

CIBENZA CSM
and CIBENZA DE200 | Optimize energy digestion.

CIBENZA PHOS
| Optimize phosphorus digestion.

SANTOQUIN
® | Protect the value of feed and its nutrients from degradation.

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS

Formulations incorporate a wider variety of cost-effective proteins while maintaining performance levels associated with more expensive feed ingredients. Poultry operations increase margins by saving money on feed costs without losing production.

The industry accomplishes more with less, meeting the needs of sustainable production along with increasing consumer expectations for environmentally friendly practices from
food providers.

 

Pathogen Control

Pathogens sometimes present in poultry, specifically salmonella and campylobacter, are a major issue for the poultry industry. Failure in controlling these pathogens results in negative impacts

Controlling pathogens in the animal production environment represents more than a best practice for the poultry industry—it’s a requirement for long-term viability. With increasing regulatory and consumer focus on food safety, producers remain vigilant. Novus solutions, when combined with sound flock management, protect your current business investment as well as future returns.

ACTIVATE® | Help prevent feed from becoming an entry point for pathogens. Ensure the breeding flock is pathogen free to prevent vertical transmission.

Water Quality
| Maintain fresh water to eliminate another possible source of contamination.

Elimination of Pests, Rodents and Insects
| Maintain proper controls to ensure a pathogen-free house environment.

Human Biosecurity
| Dedicated clothing, tools and washing stations further reduce the risk of pathogen introduction.

Management/Vaccination
| Monitor, test and treat flock on a regular basis.

 

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS

Given the zero tolerance approach to food safety, lack of proper pathogen control leaves your operation open to catastrophic economic loss and even business failure.  Proactive measures are the surest way to manage risk and protect future profits.  

With awareness of food safety at an all-time high, consumers demand food production sources that have a reputation for being reliable providers of a quality product.

As food safety issues make headline news and erode consumer confidence, the most successful, highly regarded producers will be those who maintain the healthiest birds. A sound breeder program also helps alleviate environmental concerns through increased production efficiency.

Gut Health

Gut health management is increasingly critical for optimum poultry production, and failures in gut health management can result in damages to profitability and animal welfare

Good gut health builds a strong foundation for poultry performance. Novus offers solutions to support gut health through nutrition, ingredient management, stress mitigation and disease prevention. 

SANTOQUIN® | Manage gut level oxidative stress by stabilizing nutrients to support a healthy environment.

ACTIVATE
® | Create an environment that supports ideal microflora.

CIBENZA™
| Support thorough digestion and absorption of nutrients.

OASIS
® | Support early nutrition to drive optimal gut development.

ADVENT®
| Protect against damaging organisms as a part of a vaccination program.

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS

Good gut health management optimizes production for greater profitability while managing increasing financial and regulatory pressures.

 


In addition to addressing consumer concerns about animal welfare, gut health management practices support disease prevention to produce a more desirable product.

 


Producers who maintain the healthiest birds will win the confidence and ultimately the

purchases of consumers focused on food safety. Maintaining optimal gut health also provides a good foundation for the entire chain of production.


Feed Quality

The physical form and quality of feed can be just as important as the nutritional content. Ensuring that feed is well made, stable, and free from toxins can contribute to animal performance

The form and quality of feed can affect production just as much as its nutritional content. Novus solutions can protect feed ingredients from contamination and spoilage while maintaining pellet quality and feed performance.  

SANTOQUIN® | Protect feed from oxidation to retain nutrient value.

SOLIS®
| Add nutritional support to feed.

S
URF•ACE™ | Improve pellet quality and feed manufacturing efficiency.

PROSTABIL™
| Keep feed mold-free.

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS


Well-made, stable and toxin-free feed supports better performance. Optimization in the
mill can result in significant cost savings that translates into greater return on investment.

High quality feed results in a higher quality, more desirable product.


Production of high quality feed presents an image of responsibility and accountability for
individual producers and the industry as a whole.

Distillers Dried Grains

Distillers dried grains offer an inexpensive and readily available ingredient for poultry feed. Novus offers a number of nutrition solutions that further enhance the performance of diets based on this ethanol byproduct.

MINTREX® | Avoid mineral antagonism and improve absorption with a high quality mineral chelate.

SANTOQUIN
® | Manage gut level oxidative stress by stabilizing nutrients to support a healthy environment.

CIBENZA™ DP100
| Unlock underutilized amino acids in feed ingredients.

IDEA™
| Know protein ingredients thoroughly before formulating.

BIG PICTURE BENEFITS


Optimize production to squeeze every bit of performance out of one of the most cost-effective feed ingredients on the market, and enjoy greater profits as a result.

Environmentally compatible production methods present an image of responsibility and
accountability for individual operations and the industry.

Formulating with an ethanol byproduct that would otherwise go unused represents a responsible use of resources and also supports the practice of ethanol production.

 

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 15/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
5 تصويتات / 268 مشاهدة
نشرت فى 28 مايو 2011 بواسطة Khairy4712

A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrition and feed on litter moisture, litter quality and water intake of broilers. The diets were formulated with reference to Ross Broiler Nutrition Specifications (2007). Nutritional treatments involved dietary metabolisable energy, balanced protein, mineral content, feed physical quality, feed form and feed restriction.

It was concluded that these various nutritional factors, can significantly influence litter moisture, litter quality and/or water intake of broilers.

Introduction

Litter conditions significantly influence broiler performance and the profitability of broiler production. Litter is defined as the combination of bedding material, excreta, feathers, spilled feed and water. Litter moisture and condition of the excreta are the most important factors determining litter conditions.

Excessive litter moisture may lead to high ammonia emissions, footpad dermatitis, processing downgrades and condemnations (Martland 1985; Kenny et al., 2010). Both footpad lesions and litter condition are part of EU welfare legislative control. High litter moisture alone is widely considered to be the major contributor to footpad dermatitis in the industry.

Amongst many factors affecting litter quality, nutrition could be one of the most important, but inconsistent reports in the literature do not facilitate clear conclusions. Recently some nutritional trials conducted by Aviagen have included the measurement of litter moisture and water intake to further understand how feed and nutrition affect these factors in modern broilers. The results reported here investigated the effect of nutrition and feed on water intake, litter moisture and litter quality of broilers. The effects on biological and economic performance were recorded in all trials but are not reported here. The best litter conditions may not be consistent with the best biological performance.

Effects of Dietary Energy Level

The results of four trials investigating the effects of dietary energy level on water intake and/or litter quality are shown in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4. The diets were corn-soybean meal base, formulated to Ross Broiler Nutrition Specifications (2007), and pelleted in 3-mm die or fed as mash. The energy levels were 100, 95, 92.5 and 90 per cent, where 100 per cent was equal to Ross 2007 specification, i.e. starter (0 to 10 days), 12.65MJ/kg; grower (11 to 24 days), 13.20MJ/kg; finisher (>25 days), 13.40MJ/kg. All other nutrients were the same as Ross 2007 specification. The decreased energy was achieved by reformulating with higher extracted rice bran and adjusted mostly using maize, soy oil and soybean meal.

All the trials were conducted in a tropical environment in Thailand in pens with rice hulls deep litter.

When dietary energy decreased, litter moisture increased (P<0.05) in all trials (Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4) and daily water intake (0-49 days or 0-42 days) increased (P<0.05) (Tables 1 and 4). Litter quality, scored visually, improved when energy increased (Tables 2 and 3). This could be partly caused by the fibrous ingredient (extracted rice bran) used in the energy dilution.


The reduced litter moisture and litter quality improvement with increased energy could reduce footpad dermatitis as seen by Kenny et al. (2010). However Bilgili et al. (2006) found that low-energy diets significantly reduced the incidence of paw lesions compared with high energy diets. This converse finding is probably a reflection of differences in dietary design; oil was the main ingredient changed to adjust the energy in the study by Bilgili et al.







Effects of Dietary Balanced Protein Level

The results of varying dietary balanced protein (BP) on litter moisture and water intake are shown in Table 1. The trial design was described in the previous paragraph. The BP levels were 80, 90, 100 and 120 per cent, relative to the Ross 2007 specification (=100 per cent), in all growing phases. All other nutrients, such as energy, minerals and vitamins, were the same as Ross 2007 specification.

When BP increased in diets, the litter moisture and water intake increased (P<0.05). Our findings are similar to those of Ferguson et al. (1998).

Effects of Dietary Mineral Levels

The effects of dietary mineral levels on litter moisture and quality, as measured by litter capping, at 26 days are shown in Table 5. The diets were based on wheat and soybean meal. The control diet was formulated to Ross Broiler Nutrition Specifications (2007), and the reduced mineral diet was the same specification as the control except for calcium (Ca), available phosphorus (avP) and sodium (Na), which were as shown in Table 5. All diets were pelleted in 3-mm die with phytase added.

The contribution of Ca, AvP and Na from phytase was included in the calculated levels. The trial was conducted in the Aviagen trial facility in the UK in pens with wood shavings litter.

The reduced mineral diet led to lower litter capping (P=0.053) but had no effect on litter moisture (P=0.273). Excessive dietary mineral intake has been shown to increase excreta moisture and water intake (Johnson and Karunajeewa, 1985). The mineral levels in current trial were considered to be balanced; however, there may be an opportunity to explore lower levels at some growing stages, if litter moisture and quality are problematic.

Effects of Feed Physical Quality and Feed Form

The effects of different feed physical qualities and feed form on litter moisture and litter quality are shown in Tables 2 and 3. The trial design was described above in Section II. For the fines treatment in Table 2 reground pellets were used. In Table 3, the mashes of different particle sizes were obtained by changing the screen and speed of hammer mill and they were not heat-treated.

The results showed that the birds fed with pellets resulted in higher (P<0.05) litter moisture and poorer (P<0.05) litter quality than the fines or mash groups. It is possible that the feed intake on fines and mash was much lower than pellets, resulting in lower water intake (data not shown).

Effects of Feeding Methods

The effects of restricted feeding on litter moisture, litter quality and water intake are shown in Table 4. The trial design was described in section II above. The feeding methods used were ad libitum and a 10 per cent feed restriction applied from day 6.

The feed restriction significantly (P<0.05) increased litter moisture content and decreased litter quality at 35 days, although water intake was not different at week 5 (the week that litter moisture was measured).

It is interesting to note that the average daily water intake for 0 to 42 days was significantly higher on ad libitum than on restricted feeding, an observation which could be related to higher feed intake. The effect of feed restriction leading to higher litter moisture and poorer litter quality has not been described previously to our knowledge. It could be that water intake was stimulated because birds felt unsatisfied during the feed restriction
.

Conclusion

Many factors will affect litter moisture in practice, including management and housing (type of litter, temperature, ventilation, stocking density, heating, drinking system), disease and health status (coccidiosis, viral and bacterial disease) and nutrition.

The present results demonstrate that the nutritional factors, such as energy, balanced protein, mineral contents, feed form and feed physical quality, and feed restriction, have a significant influence on litter moisture content and litter quality and/or water intake. Litter moisture significantly contributed to poor litter conditions and footpad dermatitis, which leads to welfare issues. Controlling litter moisture to improve in-house environment is essential to improve broiler performance and nutrition has role to play in terms of improving litter conditions
.

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 15/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
5 تصويتات / 399 مشاهدة

The Only Good Broiler Breeder Egg Is a Fertilized Egg 

The main goal of broiler breeder management is producing eggs. However, the only good broiler breeder egg is a fertilized egg. Fertility, the percentage of eggs laid that are fertilized, is very important in poultry production. If an egg is not fertilized, then, of course, it will not contain an embryo and will not hatch. Simply put, "Hatchability can never be better than fertility."

Hatchability is around eight percentage points lower than fertility because many chick embryos are usually lost during incubation. For example, even if 93 percent of the eggs laid are fertilized, then under normal incubation conditions only 85 percent of the eggs will hatch. This example illustrates how fertility must be very good to get above average hatchability and hatch bonus pay.

Breeders need to be kept under ideal conditions for maximum life of flock fertility. The chicken's reproductive system is very sensitive to the bird's environment, and under poor conditions the reproductive system will dwindle. For example, the environment can cause a rooster's testes to increase or decrease in size by several hundred fold. But, before we can understand which management factors influence fertility, we must first examine the fascinating process of fertilization in poultry.


Fertilization in any animal depends on production of eggs from the female and sperm from the male. A problem with either sperm or egg production can decrease fertility. The rooster's reproductive system is simple when compared to humans or other mammals. The rooster does not have a prostate gland or any of the accessory reproductive glands. Like all other animals, chicken sperm carry the genetic material from the rooster and are produced within the testes. The rooster has two very large testicles within the abdominal cavity on each side of the backbone. After sperm leave the testes, they enter the epididymis, where they gain the ability to swim. Next, the sperm enter the vas deferens, where they are stored until the rooster mates with a hen.


Sperm formation takes about 15 days. The rooster's semen contains around 5 billion sperm per cc, about 40 times as much as that of a human. Once a rooster is mature and if he is maintained properly, he will manufacture about 35,000 sperm every second of his life. However, just like the males of many animal species, the fertilizing potential of roosters varies, even within a flock. For example, some roosters are extremely fertile and create a maximum number of quality sperm; other roosters are subfertile and do not make enough good sperm. This variation in rooster quality is caused by management, environment, nutrition, and genetics.


The hen does not produce nearly as many eggs as the rooster produces sperm, but during her 40 weeks of production, the broiler breeder hen lays about 180 eggs. Egg formation requires about 25 hours. Since egg formation requires more than 24 hours, even the best hens cannot lay an egg every day in succession throughout their productive life. As is the case with roosters, some hens are more productive than others, and management has a major impact on variability among hens.


The hen's reproductive system can be divided into two major components: the ovary and the oviduct. The ovary produces the egg yolk. The oviduct adds the white, shell membranes, and shell to the yolk to complete egg formation.


The hen has only one ovary, which is on the left side of her abdomen. The ovary has several thousand ova (egg yolks) in different stages of development and looks like a bunch of grapes. Very immature yolks contain only genetic material from the hen, and as the yolks grow to around 1 mm in diameter, they become white. If the hen is managed properly, many of these developing egg yolks will mature in about 19 days into large, 35 mm, yellow yolks. As the egg yolk develops it will get water, sugars, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals from the hen's blood. These are all necessary for the embryo to develop. The egg yolk is surrounded by the perivitelline membrane. This keeps all of these nutrients in a ball-shaped package. One particularly visible region of the perivitelline membrane is the germinal disc. The germinal disc is a small white dot about half the size of a pencil eraser on the surface of the yellow egg yolk. Fertilization takes place here, and embryonic development begins.


When the egg yolk is mature, it leaves the ovary, and within 20 minutes it is captured by the infundibulum, the first part of the oviduct. Here fertilization takes place. Following mating, sperm enter the hen's oviduct and are stored within sperm storage glands. Only sperm that can swim will enter these sperm storage sites. These glands can store more than half a million sperm. Sperm can remain alive in these glands and fertilize eggs for up to 3 weeks.


A hen will have maximum fertility for only about 3 to 4 days after one mating. For this reason, the male-to-female ratio in a flock must be enough to ensure mating of every hen every 3 days or so. Sperm do not break through the eggshell. Instead they travel up the oviduct to the infundibulum to join with the egg yolk.


The sperm bind to the perivitelline membrane and make a hole as they enter the egg. Hundreds of sperm may enter the yolk. As a matter of fact, the more sperm that enter the yolk, the more likely the egg will be fertilized. Around 30 sperm must enter the egg near the germinal disc to insure a 95 percent chance of fertilization. While it is true that only one sperm is necessary to fertilize an egg, the probability of an egg's being fertilized by only one sperm's reaching and penetrating it is very low.


After about 15 minutes, the yolk leaves the infundibulum (fertilized or not) and receives the egg white, shell membranes, and shell over the next several hours from the magnum, isthmus, and uterus sections of the oviduct. When the hen lays a fertilized egg, the chick embryo has already developed for about 25 hours into approximately 20,000 embryonic cells and is a live, breathing organism. If this fertilized egg is handled properly before and during incubation, a healthy baby chick is the result

 

Khairy4712

Dr.Khairy

  • Currently 20/5 Stars.
  • 1 2 3 4 5
7 تصويتات / 322 مشاهدة
نشرت فى 8 مايو 2011 بواسطة Khairy4712

khairy abd-El-Hameed

Khairy4712
يحتوى الموقع على الأقسام المختلفة للدواجن وتشمل الدجاج-الرومى-الحمام- النعام -الطيور المائية. مع الاهتمام بالموضوعات ذات الأهمية فى الوقت الحاضر مثل موضوعات البيئة- المخلفات(الزرق والأمونيا....الخ) وتجد مجموعة من الكتب التى تغطى بعض الموضوعات المعاصرة وذات القيمة العملية وهذه فى صورة ملفات تحميل ولقد حرصت على اللغة الأنجليزية فى المرحلة التمهيدية وسنوالى »

ابحث

تسجيل الدخول

عدد زيارات الموقع

477,675