Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) an avian Birnavirus first described in the USA near the town of Gumboro Delaware and thus the disease is also known as Gumboro disease.
There are 3 recognized pathogenic types of IBDV; classic virulent (cvIBDV), sub-clinical (scIBDV), and very virulent (vvIBDV).
All three pathogenic types of IBDV cause immune suppression which leads to secondary infections and a failure to produce an immune response to vaccines.
The cvIBDV typically cause a high morbidity and low mortality disease while the scIBDV cause very little morbidity and no mortality. The vvIBDV cause an acute disease in chickens characterized by high morbidity and high mortality.
New LightCycler Technolgy
Today we are using real-time RT-PCR to detect IBDV. We are able to use probes and dyes to detect the RT-PCR products during a real-time assay.
Sequencing and Phylogenic Analysis
We determine the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of the hypervariable region of VP2 (hvVP2) to identify IBDV strains. Phylogenic analysis using these sequences has provided valuable information into the ancestry of these viruses.
Etiology and Transmission:
Infectious bursal disease is caused by a birnavirus (IBDV) that is most readily isolated from the bursa of Fabricius but may be isolated from other organs. It is shed in the feces and transferred from house to house by fomites. It is very stable and difficult to eradicate from premises.
IBDV may be isolated in 8- to 11-day-old, antibody-free chicken embryos with inocula from birds in the early stages of disease. The chorioallantoic membrane is more sensitive to inoculation than is the allantoic sac. IBDV also may be isolated in cell cultures derived from the cloacal bursa and established cell lines, and some strains may be isolated in chicken-embryo fibroblasts. Cell-culture-adapted strains of IBDV produce a cytopathic effect and may be used for quantitative serologic tests. Two serotypes of IBDV have been identified; within them, antigenic variation between strains is considerable. Serotype 2 infects chickens and turkeys but does not cause clinical disease or immunosuppression.
“Variant” strains of IBDV, which have major antigenic differences from the “standard” strains, cause immunosuppression but not clinical disease in older chickens.
Infectious bursal disease is highly contagious; results of infection depend on age and breed of chicken and virulence of the virus. Infections may be subclinical or clinical. Infections before 3 wk of age are usually subclinical. Chickens are most susceptible to clinical disease at 3-6 wk, but severe infections have occurred in Leghorn chickens up to 18 wk old.
Early subclinical infections are the most important form of the disease because of economic losses. They cause severe, long-lasting immunosuppression due to destruction of immature lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen. The humoral (B cell) immune response is most severely affected; the cell-mediated (T cell) immune response is affected to a lesser extent. Chickens immunosuppressed by early IBDV infections do not respond well to vaccination and are predisposed to infections with normally nonpathogenic viruses and bacteria. Common diseases are usually exacerbated by IBDV infections. Subclinical infections by the “variant” strains occur in immature birds, and severe longterm immunosuppression and bursal atrophy result from early infections.
In clinical infections, onset of the disease is sudden after an incubation of 3-4 days. Chickens exhibit severe prostration, incoordination, watery diarrhea, soiled vent feathers, vent picking, and inflammation of the cloaca. Losses range to >20%. Recovery occurs in <1 wk, and broiler weight gain is delayed by 3-5 days. The presence of maternal antibody will modify the clinical course of the disease. Virulence of field strains of the virus varies considerably. Very virulent (vv) strains of the virus that cause high mortality and morbidity were detected first in Europe. These spread throughout the Old World in the last decade and in 1999 were in South America. The vv strains have not been detected in the USA.
At necropsy, the cloacal bursa is swollen, edematous, yellowish, and occasionally hemorrhagic, especially in birds that have died of the disease. Congestion and hemorrhage of the pectoral, thigh, and leg muscles is common. Chickens recovered from IBDV infections have small, atrophied, cloacal bursas due to the destruction and lack of regeneration of the bursal follicles.
There is no treatment. Depopulation and rigorous disinfection of contaminated farms have achieved limited success. Live vaccines of chick-embryo or cell-culture origin and of varying virulence can be administered by eye drop, drinking water, or SC routes at 1-21 days of age. The immune response can be altered by maternal antibody, and the more virulent vaccine strains can override higher levels of antibody.
High levels of maternal antibody during early brooding of chicks in broiler flocks (and in some commercial layer operations) can minimize early infection, subsequent immunosuppression, or both. Breeder flocks should be vaccinated one or more times during the growing period, first with a live vaccine and again just before egg production with an oil-adjuvanted, inactivated vaccine. Inactivated vaccines of chick-embryo, bursa, or cell-culture origin are available. The latter vaccines induce higher, more uniform, and more persistent levels of antibody than do live vaccines. The immune status of breeder flocks should be monitored periodically with a quantitative serologic test such as virus neutralization or ELISA. If antibody levels fall, hens should be revaccinated to maintain adequate immunity in the progeny.
المصدر: Akrum Hamdy