Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2 max) (Amount of O2 (mL) consumed by 1Kg of body weight per minute) in the horse is 2.6 times that in cattle and 2-2.5 times that in high trained man. One of the most physiological factor for the reasons that hemoglobin concentration in blood of horse is higher than the other animal like racing camel, so when you try to give hematonics to elevate the hemoglobin of horse the result will be promising but in camel can't tolerate the hematonic and lead to give negative result because camel cant adapted with high hemoglobin concentration.
Factors affected VO2 max
Lung capacity (Tidal volume)(Lung volume of the horse is double size volume of cattle)
Cardiac output (Stroke volume, Heart rate)
Oxygen Carrying Capacity (Hemoglobin concentration) (Splenic contraction)
Fat storage is more than carbohydrate storage
Energy from carbohydrate metabolism is higher than fat
Oxidative metabolism in Type 1 fiber is higher than type 2a and 2b fibers and fat storage in type 1 fiber is higher than the others
Although intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) storage in muscle of dog is higher than muscle of horse but energy production per kg in horse is double than one of dog
Glycogen storage in muscle of horse is the most substrate that horse depend on energy production
Rate of fat oxidation peak in human and dog approximately 40-50% of Vo2 max, this theory not clears in horse because fat oxidation in dog is dominant while horse not depends on fat oxidation
Fat oxidation consumed 40-60% in dog, 75% in human and 25% in horse
Oxidation begins with creatine phosphate (most of energy) then glucose (less than 10% of energy output) then glycogen (in endurance horse) then IMTG
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Dr.Medhat A. El Shemy