Fish Genetics and Biodiversity Conservation
The genomics revolution and its impacts on aquaculture are expected to contribute to resolving problems such as diseases, environmental impacts, and low profit margins. The major potential applications of genome technologies, primarily in aquaculture but also to some extents in capture fisheries include: marker assisted selection (MAS) for genetic enhancement; environmental improvements through enhanced productivity as well as the development of novel technologies for environment monitoring, development of effective vaccines and their delivery technologies; monitoring antibiotic resistance; diagnosis for fish diseases and for the safety of aquatic produce; accurate identification of fish stocks for capture fisheries management and for their use as FIGR in aquaculture; conservation of FIGR, including protection of endangered species, in response to fish production strategies and consumer interests; and the development and application of transgenic fish technology including, for example, sterilization technology to address concern about their possible environmental impacts.
A great challenge for aquaculture and capture fisheries is the long-term conservation of FIGR. Genome technologies provide new tools for genetic analysis. Innovative DNA marker technologies have opened a broad avenue for the analysis of genetic diversity based on genotypes. Some aquaculture operations still use wild fish seed. For these and for future fish breeding programs, conservation of wild FIGR is important. The applications of genomics in aquaculture and capture fisheries raise ethical, economic, environmental, legal, and social concerns. The most prominent of these at present relate to the development and use of genetically modified organisms. More research is needed not only to resolve issues related to safety of using transgenic fish, but also to produce novel technologies allowing safe use of transgenic technology. Public education about genomics and its applications is a key issue. The public is relatively naïve and ill information about genomics. Conversely, genomics researchers may not understand the practical needs of aquaculture and capture fisheries or of fish consumers. While information dissemination about genomics to the public is very important, better exchanges of information between genome researches and aquaculture and fisheries professionals are also essential.
Fish genomics and analytical genetic technologies are reviewed here, with some examples of their implications for FIGR management. Genomics is a highly dynamic research field, currently dominated by human genomics but rapid developments in genomics can afford new opportunities for applications in aquaculture and capture fisheries, particularly in the areas of FIGR conservation and genetic enhancement. Genomics began to receive substantial attention as a result of the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project faced the tasks of decoding the three billion base pairs of the human genome. Genomics always generates large data sets and these demand new ways of data management. Genomics draws data from cytogenetic, molecular genetics, quantitative genetics, and population genetics, and has led to the development of bioinformatics, through which raw genome information links to meaningful biological information. Genomics comprises the study of genome structure, organization, expression, evolution, and functions.
This book provides update information on various aspects of this subject. This book will be invaluable to students dealing with this topic.
- Fish Production: Structure and Composition.
- Biotechnology in Fish Breeding.
- Vertebrate-Derived Compounds.
- Artificial Hybridization.
- Shrimp Culture Practices and Production.
- Expression Pattern of Genes of Hormones that Control Growth in Fish.
- Collocation of Fish Farming and Crop Cultivation.
- Analytical Procedures.
- Present Status and Future Directives.
- Post-Process Handling.
- Process Control in Fish Canning Operations.