DR.Chandrawati Jee Shagufta
Biotechnology is most briefly defined as the art of utilising living organisms and their products for the production of food, drink, medicine or for other benefits to the human race, or other animal species. It has great potential to influence and benefit fisheries and aquaculture. The genetic improvement of fish for aquaculture and related fisheries is a field of research that has seen immense advances in recent years.
Biotechnology in fisheries and aquaculture represents a range of technologies that present opportunities to increase growth rate in farmed species, to improve nutrition of aquafeeds, to improve fish health, to help restore and protect environments, to extend the range of aquatic species and to improve management and conservation of wild stocks. Some biotechnologies are simple with a long history of application, e.g. fertilisation of ponds to increase feed availability, while others are more advanced and take advantage of increased knowledge of molecular biology and genetics, e.g. genetic engineering and DNA disease diagnosis.
Genetic biotechnologies in aquaculture focus primarily on increasing growth rate, but also address increased disease resistance and increased environmental tolerance and include simple techniques, e.g. hybridisation, to the transfer of specific genes between species. The improvement in knowledge of breeding requirements and the ability to artificially induce breeding through the administering of natural or synthetic hormones and/or environmental manipulations has been a key factor that has facilitated the application of more advanced biotechnologies: selective breeding, maintenance of other stocks improved by chromosome manipulation, line crossing, or sex reversal all depend on controlled breeding of farmed species
in fishery management, Bene and genotype frequency data can provide information on, inter alia, species: identification, population stock structure, hybridisation and gene flow. Genetic biotechnologies can be used in conservation programmes, to reduce the impacts of farmed fish on wild populations, to identify and manage endangered species and to manage genetic resources of captive populations in aquaria or in species recovery programmes.
A key consideration in transferring genetic technologies to the aquaculture sector is that they should be applied in an environmentally sound manner with due protection of native aquatic diversity. In addition, the social impact of genetic technology transfer should be considered in how it affects the autonomy and economy of rural populations.
the present book explains the science - based and policy related concerns about fish biotechnology. It makes an incisive and deep examination of the processes, principles and practices that Centre biotechnology in aquaculture and fisheries,with particular emphasis on current issues and problems in the field.
It is hoped that the comprehensive and insightful book serves well for advanced students and researchers in biotechnology, fisheries and aquaculture.
Principles of Biotechnology; Tools of Biotechnology; Applications of Biotechnology; Biotechnology in Fisheries and Aquaculture; Sustainable Use of Fish Biotechnology
2. Genetic Modification of Fish
Nature of Aquatic GMOs; Process of Genetic Modification; Genetic Quantitative Characters; Uses of Aquatic GMOs; Risk Factors of GMOs; Policies for GMO Regulation
3. Gene Transfer Technology in Fishes
Principle of Gene Transfer; Species used for Gene Transfer; Methods of Gene Transfer; Identification of Transgenic Fish; Germ-line Transmission; Transgenic Zebrafish and Applied Studies; Industrial Applications; Future Prospects
4. Fish Genomics
Genomics Revolution; Fish Genomics and Analytical Genetic Technologies; Achievements of Aquaculture Genomics; Genomics in Fish Genetic Resources Management; Environmental and Social Issues; Fish Genomics Research
5. Biotechnology and Fish Breeding
Kinds Breeding Methods; Genetic Improvement Programmes; Genetic Technologies and Conservation; Towards Sustainable Aquaculture
6. Performance of Transgenic Fish
GloFish-The First GM Fish; Growth of Transgenics; Cold Tolerance; Disease Resistance; Genetic Enhancement Programs; Genotype X Environment Interactions; Development of Fitness Traits; Transgenic Sterilisation; Commercialisation of Transgenic Fish; Research Activities; Future Perspectives
7. Applications of Biotechnology in Aquaculture
Potentials of Transgenic Aquatic Organisms; Applications of Genetic Engineering to Aquaculture; Gene Flow; Consequences for Aquatic Ecosystem; Exotic Species Invasion
8. Genetic Resources of Capture Fisheries
Trends in Capture Fisheries; Molecular Markers; Genetic Viability in Natural Populations; Genetic Threats to Capture Fisheries; Policy Environment
9. Genetic Resources of Aquaculture
Aquaculture Resources; Fish Selection for Farming; Communication Barriers; Information Sources; Threats; Management; Sharing Benefits; Strategic Directions
10. Fish Biotechnology: Risk Analysis
Environmental Impacts; Food Safety Issues; InternationalPolicies; Risk Management; Future Challenges